阅读理解

阅读理解一般指语篇理解,是检验考生词汇、语法等综合语言理解能力的一种题型,对考生语言素质的要求比较高,阅读理解是各类英语考试的核心,也是令众多考生头痛的部分。如何才能提高自己的阅读理解的能力,避免时间和体力上的浪费,做到事半功倍呢?我们来谈谈阅读理解部分的应试策略,以求帮助考生在这一部分里取得好成绩。

一.考前要对词汇、语法作系统而扎实的复习。

阅读理解是对考生词汇、语法的综合测试,三者是紧密联系在一起,不可割裂的整体。词汇记得扎实,阅读的速度会提高;掌握好语法,对语篇中的长句子以及特殊句型的理解就会变得流畅、准确。

二.考试中的解题步骤 :

1. 快速阅读全文,了解文章大意。

2. 浏览文章后面的问题。

3.带着问题,再次阅读文章。针对不同的问题,采取不同的阅读策略。

1) What’s the main idea of the passage? 或 What’s the topic sentence of paragraph two?

对于这种询问文章大意或段落的中心句是什麽的问题,我们在读文章时可以着重注意文章的第一段,最后一段;或者每一段的第一句最后一句。因为文章的主题思想一般出现在文章的首尾两段中,而段落大意则通常出现在段落的首尾两句中。当然有时,文章的主题思想或段落大意会出现在中间,考生就要留意文章的中间一段和段落的中间一句。

2) When did the accident take place?或 Where did the girl go after she graduated?

对于这类以when, where, what, which,why,how提问的问题,考生需抓住这几个关键词,根据自己第一遍阅读的记忆,选定题区,在大体位置里查阅一下应该不难发现线索。

3)     Which of the following statements is true? or Which of the following statements is not true?

像这种判断陈述正确与否的问题,考生需要对文章进行整体把握,进行判断,也可以根据陈述中的某些细节或关键词与原文进行核对、判断。

4)     What ’s the author’s attitude toward …?

对于这种询问作者对某件事情或人的态度的问题,考生就不能仅从文章中找客观的答案了,而应该根据自己对全文的理解判断作者的态度。特别注意那些带有感情色彩的词和题目到底考查的是作者的观点还是引述他人的观点。这种类型的问题对考生的理解能力提出了较高的要求。

4. 判断并选择正确答案。

5. 检查答案是否正确。

做阅读理解题,要提高速度,一定要留出时间来检查你所选的答案是否正确。对于拿不准的题目要把问题带到原文中反复分析,最终确定答案。因为,阅读理解题的分值一般比较高,是考生最容易失分的部分,所以,检查在做阅读理解题的过程中占有重要地位。

三.几种特殊技巧。

1.     猜测。

一个人所掌握的词汇量是有限的,无论是在阅读理解材料里还是在问题中,都有可能碰到生词,如果考生采取一词一词逐个翻译的方式做阅读理解题,不仅浪费时间而且会因为有生单词而阻碍考生做题。所以,猜测是考生必须掌握的一种技能。遇到生单词,考生可以跳过它,根据上下文,在语境中猜测它的含义。

2. 先易后难。

一提“先易后难”,有点老生常谈,但是在阅读理解解题过程中,如果考生拘泥于一道难题而止步不前,就会因小失大,延误做题时间。考生做阅读题,无论题目难易,都要在泛读的基础上进行精读,所以,尽量在第一遍泛读中把明显的容易的题目选出,然后把第二遍精读作为着重解决难题和检查前面选出题目的一个步,做到一举两得。

3. 选择含有文中出现频率较高的词句的选项。

当考生对于问题和选项实在不理解时,可以运用这种技能。是一种铤而走险的方式,但是根据规律,选对的几率还是蛮高的。

4.“ 两不”。

与常理相违背的选项不选,语气过于绝对的选项不选。有些阅读题,选项中有与常理相违背的项,考生在初次浏览问题及选项时就可以大胆地排除掉。还有的选项在表达上过于绝对化,考生也可以排除这种选项,因为阅读理解题在语气上一般都比较婉转。

四.合理运用历年真题。

提高阅读理解能力,必须做大量的练习。通过练习可以锻炼考生掌握和运用各种技巧解题的能力,发现自己的弱点,即而有针对性的进行训练。而且可以提高解题速度。从这个层面上说,历年真题是比较有价值的复习资料:可以帮助学生熟悉题型和试题的难易度;归纳总结历年考试的侧重点;预测自己的应试水平。但是不能完全依赖历年真题,因为考题每年都有变动,所以考生必须正确对待、合理利用历年真题。

1.     限时做熟每套真题,进行模考。

2.     发现问题,有针对性的查漏补缺。

3.     全面复习知识,完善自己的知识框架。

4.     再次运用历年真题,限时自测,强化知识。

五.结合例题,具体运用阅读理解应试策略。

Poverty and Health 
Pediatrician(儿科医生), Dr. Tony Walterston has growing evidence that the health deficit (不足)between those in Social Class Five, that is the lowest rung on the socioeconomic ladder, and those who are better off, begins in childhood. 
   “In mortality, the biggest effect is in child accidents. There are five-fold accidents. And this is almost certainly due to the lack of safe play areas, in deprived areas. So basically children play on the streets. In the homes, it is related to home safety and the lack, in poor housing, poor quality housing, of safety measures. So there are no smoke alarms, so the fires are more common, and there is lack of protection on stairs and on windows, so that children have accidents much more commonly. This is a very major difference.” 
   “Fivefold difference is a very major difference. ” 
   “Quite, quite. It is also in terms of morbidity, which means the diseases children get and then die. All infections are much greater in Social Class Five. In pneumonia, whooping cough, ear infections, and ear infection, in particular, has an impact in education, because children have hearing loss. And these are probably due to dampand over-crowding, so that children are brought more closer together and infections happen more easily.” 
   “More than one in three children are now growing up in relative poverty. Twenty years ago it was one in ten. And family’s income is less than half the national average wage.” 
Dr. Iona Heath, who works in an inner city practice in London , sees the impact on her patients of low income, compounded by poor employment prospects, poor housing and poor diet. 
   “It generates a chronic (慢性的) stress that seems to undermine physical and mental health.” 
   “Can you see it literally in people as they come into surgery? I mean, they just don’t look well?” 
   “You can see that people look tired, and stressed, and defeated, and feel no sense of place in society that’s apparently doing well. I think that’s the argument about relative poverty. It’s that there’s a lot of rhetoric(不实之言) about how well people are doing. You see a lot of wonderful, glossyadvertisements about how life could be and yet it’s million miles away from the life that you have. And you begin to feel a bit overwhelmed by it, because the number of times that I have to prescribe anti-depression medication for people who have become clinically depressed. But they and I know that what they need is a move of housing, and more appropriate housing, more space. People, you know, families of four, living in two rooms with teenage children, it’s unacceptable.” 
The other side of the coin is that the socially advantaged are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. 
1.The relation between poverty and health ________. 
A. is only felt by doctors 
B. does exist 
C. is a myth 
D. has not been studied yet 
2.Accidents happen ________. 
A. among children from both poor and rich families alike 
B. among children from poor families far more often 
C. among adults more than children 
D. among starving children only 
3.According to Dr Heath, the influence of poverty upon her patients are ________. 
A. both physical and mental 
B. more physical than mental 
C. only physical 
D. more mental than physical 
4.The impression we gather from this passage is that ________. 
A. the number of poor people is decreasing 
B. the number of poor people is going up 
C. the entire population has increased 
D. the entire population has decreased 
 5.What does the word “morbidity” in the fourth paragraph mean ?

A. 死亡率B. 出生率C. 疾病率D. 流动性

【注释】:在泛读全文后,浏览问题。

?第一题 ?:询问健康和贫穷之间的关系。文章以贫穷与健康为题,所以,第一题实际上与文章的中心思想有关。考生应该把注意力放在文章的第一段和最后一段。根据这两段的内容,可以排除A、C、D,只有B健康与贫穷之间的确存在关系,符合文意,所以选B。

?第二题 ?:Accidents是这道题目的提示,考生可以根据这个词,选定题区,将注意力锁定在文章的中间一部分。浏览四个选项,C 事故在成人中的发生率多于儿童。与文章主要探讨儿童的健康这一主题不符,可以排除。D 事故只发生在饥饿的儿童中,太绝对,也可以先排除。带着选项A和B精读文章的中间一部分。贫穷的环境使得儿童缺乏安全保护措施,由此可以推断,事故在穷人家的儿童中发生的频率高些。答案应该选择B。

?第三题? :根据题干中According to Dr.Heath,考生可以到文中找他的观点或话语,“It generates a chronic stress that seems to undermine physical and mental health.”  由此,考生可以选出A。贫穷对儿童的肉体和精神都有影响。

?第四题?:询问考生可以从这篇文章中推断出什麽。这道题目考查考生对整篇文章的理解,考生除了需要精读整篇文章外,还要注意文章中的关键语句。文章的最后一句是做这道题的关键。The other side of the coin is that the socially advantaged are living longer, healthier lives than ever before.  社会中的特权阶层即富裕的人比原来活的更长更健康,反之就是穷人寿命更短。所以,选A。穷人的人数在下降。
?第五题?:这道词汇释义题,对考生来说比较简单,因为文中给出了这个词的解释:It is also in terms of morbidity, which means the diseases children get and then die .据此,考生可以选出 C疾病率。

以上只是一些阅读理解应试策略,还需考生灵活地将其运用到实际解题过程中,并多加练习,针对自己的实际情况打好基础,完善知识。