Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage:
Low-level slash-and-burn farming doesn’t harm rainforest. On the contrary, it helps farmers and improves forest soils. This is the unorthodox view of a German soil scientist who has shown that burnt clearings in the Amazon, dating back more than 1,000 years, helped create patches of rich, fertile soil that farmers still benefit from today.
Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because they lack minerals and because the heat and heavy rainfall destroy most organic matter in the soils within four years of it reaching the forest floor. This means topsoil contains few of the ingredients needed for long-term successful farming.
But Bruno Glaser, a soil scientist of the University of Bayreuth, has studied unexpected patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon. These soils contain lots of organic matter.
Glaser has shown that most of this fertile organic matter comes from “black carbon”-the organic particles from camp fires and charred (烧成炭的) wood left over from thousands of years of slash-and-burn farming. ”The soils, known as Terra Preta, contained up to 70times more black carbon than the surrounding soil, ”says Glaser.
Unburnt vegetation rots quickly, but black carbon persists in the soil for many centuries. Radiocarbon dating shows that the charred wood in Terra Preta soils is typically more than 1,000 years old.
“Slash-and-burn farming can be good for soils provided it doesn’t completely burn all the vegetation, and leaves behind charred wood,” says Glaser. “It can be better than manure (粪肥).” Burning the forest just once can leave behind enough black carbon to keep the soil fertile for thousands of years. And rainforests easily regrow after small-scale clearing. Contrary to the conventional view that human activities damage the environment, Glaser says: ”Black carbon combined with human wastes is responsible for the richness of Terra Preta soils.”
Terra Preta soils turn up in large patches all over the Amazon, where they are highly prized by farmers. All the patches fall within 500 square kilometers in the central Amazon. Glaser says the widespread presence of pottery (陶器) confirms the soil’s human origins.
The findings add weight to the theory that large areas of the Amazon have recovered so well from past periods of agricultural use that the regrowth has been mistaken by generations of biologists for “virgin” forest.
During the past decade, researchers have discovered hundreds of large earth works deep in the jungle. They are up to 20 meters high and cover up to a square kilometer. Glaser claims that these earth works, built between AD 400 and 1400, were at the heart of urban civilizations. Now it seems the richness of the Terra Preta soils may explain how such civilizations managed to feed themselves.
11. We learn from the passage that the traditional view of slash-and-burn farming is that______.
A、it does no harm to the topsoil of the rainforest
B、it destroys rainforest soils
C、it helps improve rainforest soils
D、it diminishes the organic matter in rainforest soils
12. Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because ______.
A、the composition of the topsoil is rather unstable
B、black carbon is washed away by heavy rains
C、organic matter is quickly lost due to heat and rain
D、long-term farming has exhausted the ingredients essential to plant growth
13. Glaser made his discovery by______.
A、studying patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon
B、examining pottery left over by ancient civilizations
C、test-burning patches of trees in the central Amazon
D、radiocarbon-dating ingredients contained in forest soils
14. What does Glaser say about the regrowth of rainforests?
A、They take centuries to regrow after being burnt.
B、They cannot recover unless the vegetation is burnt completely.
C、Their regrowth will be hampered by human habitation.
D、They can recover easily after slash-and-burn farming.
15. From the passage it can be inferred that .
A、human activities will do grave damage to rainforests
B、Amazon rainforest soils used to be the richest in the world
C、farming is responsible for the destruction of the Amazon rainforests
D、there once existed an urban civilization in the Amazon rainforests
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:
As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, real-estate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the “irresistible momentum of individualism” over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on(扰乱) Europeans’ private lives.
Europe’s new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today’s tech-savvy(精通技术的) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so.
Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriage-twentysomething professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative-dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone.
The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn’t leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in Paris, says he hasn’t got time to get lonely because he has too much work. “I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult.” Only an Ideal Woman would make him change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called “The Single Woman and Prince Charming,” thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don’t last long-if they start at all. Eppendorf, a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she’d never have wanted to do what her mother did-give up a career to raise a family. Instead, “I’ve always done what I wanted to do: live a self-determined life.”
16. More and more young Europeans remain single because______.
A、they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism
B、they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age
C、they have embraced a business culture of stability
D、they are pessimistic about their economic future
17. What is said about European society in the passage?
A、It has fostered the trend towards small families.
B、It is getting closer to American-style capitalism.
C、It has limited consumer choice despite a free market.
D、It is being threatened by irresistible privatization.
18. 18. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are______.
A、warm and lighthearted
B、on either side of marriage
C、negative and gloomy
D、healthy and wealthy
19. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that______.
A、some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom
B、the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe
C、some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely
D、most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable
20. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?
A、To review the impact of women becoming high earners.
B、To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism.
C、To examine the trend of young people living alone.
D、To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified(GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released.
The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her.
But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. “They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired,” Ingham told New Scientist.
The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week.
“We would lose terrestrial(陆生的) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999.
But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of “presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information” and “generating speculative doomsday scenarios(世界末日的局面) that are not scientifically supportable”. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials.
The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides(生物杀虫剂) division, says “there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test” the organism.
Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use.
Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her.
“I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,” says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. “It’s n attempt to silence the opposition.”
21. The passage centers on the controversy______.
A、between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification
B、as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued
C、over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants
D、about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university
22. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on______.
A、evidence provided by the EPA of the United States
B、the results of an experiment she conducted herself
C、evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists
D、the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon
23. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA______.
A、has cancelled its approval for field tests of the GM organism
B、hasn’t reviewed the findings of Ingham’s research
C、has approved field tests using the GM organism
D、hasn’t given permission to field test the GM organism
24. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network______.
A、should gather evidence to discredit Ingham’s claims
B、should require that the research by their biologists be regulated
C、shouldn’t demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views
D、shouldn’t appease the opposition in such a quiet way
25. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE?
A、Her testimony hasn’t been supported by the EPA.
B、Her credibility as a scientist hasn’t been undermined.
C、She is firmly supported by her university.
D、She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
Every fall, like clockwork, Linda Krentz of Beaverton, Oregon, felt her brain go on strike. “I just couldn’t get going in the morning,” she says. “I’d get depressed and gain 10 pounds every winter and lose them again in the spring.” Then she read about seasonal affective disorder, a form of depression that occurs in fall and winter, and she saw the light-literally. Every morning now she turns on a specially constructed light box for half an hour and sits in front of it to trick her brain into thinking it’s still enjoying those long summer days. It seems to work.
Krentz is not alone. Scientists estimate that 10 million Americans suffer from seasonal depression and 25 million more develop milder versions. But there’s never been definitive proof that treatment with very bright lights makes a difference. After all, it’s hard to do a double-blind test when the subjects can see for themselves whether or not the light is on. That’s why nobody has ever separated the real effects of light therapy from placebo(安慰剂) effects.
Until now. In three separate studies published last month, researchers report not only that light therapy works better than a placebo but that treatment is usually more effective in the early morning than in the evening. In two of the groups, the placebo problem was resolved by telling patients they were comparing light boxes to a new anti-depressant device that emits negatively charged ions(离子). The third used the timing of light therapy as the control.
Why does light therapy work? No one really knows. “Our research suggests it has something to do with shifting the body’s internal clock,” says psychiatrist Dr. Lewey. The body is programmed to start the day with sunrise, he explains, and this gets later as the days get shorter. But why such subtle shifts make some people depressed and not others is a mystery.
That hasn’t stopped thousands of winter depressives from trying to heal themselves. Light boxes for that purpose are available without a doctor’s prescription. That bothers psychologist Michael Terman of Columbia University. He is worried that the boxes may be tried by patients who suffer from mental illness that can’t be treated with light. Terman has developed a questionnaire to help determine whether expert care is needed.
In any event, you should choose a reputable manufacturer. Whatever product you use should emit only visible light, because ultraviolet light damages the eyes. If you are photosensitive(对光敏感的), you may develop a rash. Otherwise, the main drawback is having to sit in front of the light for 30 to 60 minutes in the morning. That’s an inconvenience many winter depressives can live with.
26. What is the probable cause of Krentz’s problem?
A、An unexpected gain in body weight.
B、Unexplained impairment of her nervous system.
C、Weakening of her eyesight with the setting in of winter.
D、Poor adjustment of her body clock to seasonal changes.
27. By saying that Linda Krentz “saw the light”(Line 4, Para. 1), the author means that she “ ______”.
A、learned how to lose weight
B、realized what her problem was
C、came to see the importance of light
D、became light-hearted and cheerful
28. What is the CURRENT view concerning the treatment of seasonal depression with bright lights?
A、Its effect remains to be seen.
B、It serves as a kind of placebo.
C、It proves to be an effective therapy.
D、It hardly produces any effects.
29. What is psychologist Michael Terman’s major concern?
A、Winter depressives will be addicted to using light boxes.
B、No mental patients would bother to consult psychiatrists.
C、Inferior light boxes will emit harmful ultraviolet lights.
D、Light therapy could be misused by certain mental patients.
30. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A、Winter depressives prefer light therapy in spite of its inconvenience.
B、Light therapy increases the patient’s photosensitivity.
C、Eye damage is a side effect of light therapy.
D、Light boxes can be programmed to correspond to shifts in the body clock.