Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage:
Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu (流感) may make a difference in how long the misery lasts.
The American Lung Association (ALA) has issued new guidelines on combating colds and the flu , and one of the keys is being able to quickly tell the two apart. That's because the prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon after the illness sets in. As for colds, the sooner a person starts taking over-the-counter remedy, the sooner relief will come.
The common cold and the flu are both caused by viruses. More than 200 viruses can cause cold symptoms, while the flu is caused by three viruses - flu A, B and C. There is no cure for either illness, but the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine (疫苗), which is, for most people, the best way to fight the flu, according to the ALA.
But if the flu does strike, quick action can help. Although the flu and common cold have many similarities, there are some obvious signs to look for.
Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. On the other hand, fever is one of the characteristic features of the flu for all ages. And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms.
The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. It advises parents to call the doctor if their small children have flu-like symptoms.
Both cold and flu symptoms can be eased with over-the-counter medications as well. However, children and teens with a cold or flu should not take aspirin for pain relief because of the risk of Reye syndrome (综合症) ，a rare but serious condition of the liver and central nervous system. Reye syndrome .
There is, of course, no vaccine for the common cold. But frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds can reduce the likelihood of Catching one.
11. According to the author, knowing the cause of the misery will help ______
A、shorten the duration of the illness
B、the patient buy medicine over the counter
C、the patient obtain cheaper prescription drugs
D、prevent people from catching colds and the flu
12. We learn from the passage that _______
A、one doesn't need to take any medicine if he has a cold or the flu
B、aspirin should not be included in over-the-counter medicines for the flu
C、delayed treatment of the flu will harm the liver and central nervous system
D、over-the-counter drugs can be taken to ease the misery caused by a cold or the flu
13. According to the passage, to combat the flu effectively, ______
A、one should identify the virus which causes it
B、one should consult a doctor as soon as possible
C、one should take medicine upon catching the disease
D、one should remain alert when the disease is spreading
14. Which of the following symptoms will distinguish the flu from a cold?
A、A stuffy nose.
B、A high temperature.
C、A sore throat.
D、A dry cough.
15. If children have flu-like symptoms, their parents ______
A、are advised not to give them aspirin
B、should watch out for signs of Reye syndrome
C、are encouraged to take them to hospital for vaccination
D、should prevent them from mixing with people running a fever
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:
In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 American preschool teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents (答问卷者)listed "to give children a good start' academically" as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the American respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents.
In the recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented (强调个性发展的) Americans listed group experience as one of their top three choices. An emphasis on the importance of the group seen in Japanese early childhood education continues into elementary school education.
Like in America, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary schools.
Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children's chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens.
16. We learn from the first paragraph that many Americans believe ______
A、Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents
B、Japan's economic success is a result of its scientific achievements
C、Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction
D、Japan's higher education is superior to theirs
17. Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to ______
18. In Japan's preschool education, the focus is on ______
A、preparing children academically
B、developing children's artistic interests
C、tapping children's potential
D、shaping children's character
19. Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to ______
A、broaden children's horizon
B、cultivate children's creativity
C、lighten children's study load
D、enrich children's knowledge
20. Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university- based kindergartens?
A、They can do better in their future studies.
B、They can accumulate more group experience there.
C、They can be individually oriented when they grow up.
D、They can have better chances of getting a first-rate education.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
Lead deposits, which accumulated in soil and snow during the 1960's and 70's, were primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissions originating in the United States. In the twenty years that the Clean Air Act has mandated unleaded gas use in the United States, the lead accumulation world-wide has decreased significantly.
A study published recently in the journal Nature shows that air-borne leaded gas emissions from the United States were the leading contributor to the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland. The new study is a result of the continued research led by Dr. Charles Boutron, an expert on the impact of heavy metals on the environment at the National Center for Scientific Research in France. A study by Dr. Boutron published in 1991 showed that lead levels in arctic (北极的) snow were declining.
In his new study, Dr. Boutron found the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasoline used in the United States were different from the ratios of European, Asian and Canadian gasolines and thus enabled scientists to differentiate (区分) the lead sources. The dominant lead ratio found in Greenland snow matched that found in gasoline from the United States.
In a study published in the journal Ambio, scientists found that lead levels in soil in the North-eastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline.
Many scientists had believed that the lead would stay in soil and snow for a longer period.
The authors of the Ambio study examined samples of the upper layers of soil taken from the same sites of 30 forest floors in New England, New York and Pennsylvania in 1980 and in 1990.
The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected.
Scientists say both studies demonstrate that certain parts of the ecosystem (生态系统 ) respond rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollution, but that these findings should not be used as a license to pollute.
21. The study published in the journal Nature indicates that ______
A、the Clean Air Act has not produced the desired results
B、lead deposits in arctic snow are on the increase
C、lead will stay in soil and snow longer than expected
D、the US is the major source of lead pollution in arctic snow
22. Lead accumulation worldwide decreased significantly after the use of unleaded gas in the US ______
B、was enforced by law
C、was prohibited by law
23. How did scientists discover the source of lead pollution in Greenland?
A、By analyzing the data published in journals like Nature and Ambio.
B、By observing the lead accumulations in different parts of the arctic area.
C、By studying the chemical elements of soil and snow in Northeastern America.
D、By comparing the chemical compositions of leaded gasoline used in various countries.
24. The authors of the Ambio study have found that ______
A、forests get rid of lead pollution faster than expected
B、lead accumulations in forests are more difficult to deal with
C、lead deposits are widely distributed in the forests of the US
D、the upper layers of soil in forests are easily polluted by lead emissions
25. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that scientists ______
A、are puzzled by the mystery of forest pollution
B、feel relieved by the use of unleaded gasoline
C、still consider lead pollution a problem
D、lack sufficient means to combat lead pollution.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
Exercise is one of the few factors with a positive role in long-term maintenance of body weight. Unfortunately, that message has not gotten through to the average American, who would rather try switching to "light" beer and low-calorie bread than increase physical exertion. The Centers for Disease Control, for example, found that fewer than one-fourth of overweight adults who were trying to shed pounds said they were combining exercise with their diet.
In rejecting exercise, some people may be discouraged too much by caloric-expenditure charts; for example, one would have to briskly walk three miles just to work off the 275 calories in one delicious Danish pastry (小甜饼). Even exercise professionals concede half a point here. "Exercise by itself is a very tough way to lose weight," says York Onnen, program director of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.
Still, exercise's supporting role in weight reduction is vital. A study at the Boston University Medical Center of overweight police officers and other public employees confirmed that those who dieted without exercise regained almost all their old weight, while those who worked exercise into their daily routine maintained their new weight.
If you have been sedentary (极少活动的) and decide to start walking one mile a day, the added exercise could burn an extra 100 calories daily. In a year's time, assuming no increase in food intake, you could lose ten pounds. By increasing the distance of your walks gradually and making other dietary adjustments, you may lose even more weight.
26. What is said about the average American in the passage?
A、They tend to exaggerate the healthful effect of "light" beer.
B、They usually ignore the effect of exercise on losing weight.
C、They prefer "light" beer and low-calorie bread to other drinks and food.
D、They know the factors that play a positive role in keeping down body weight.
27. Some people dislike exercise because ______
A、they think it is physically exhausting
B、they find it hard to exercise while on a diet
C、they don't think it possible to walk 3 miles every day
D、they find consulting caloric-expenditure charts troublesome
28. "Even exercise professionals concede half a point here" (Line 3, Para. 2) means They______
A、agree that the calories in a small piece of pastry can be difficult to work off by exercise
B、partially believe diet plays a supporting role in weight reduction
C、are not fully convinced that dieting can help maintain one's new weight
D、are not sufficiently informed of the positive role of exercise in losing weight
29. What was confirmed by the Boston University Medical Center's study?
A、Controlling one's calorie intake is more important than doing exercise.
B、Even occasional exercise can help reduce weight.
C、Weight reduction is impossible without exercise.
D、One could lose ten pounds in a year's time if there's no increase in food intake.
30. What is the author's purpose in writing this article?
A、To justify the study of the Boston University Medical Center.
B、To stress the importance of maintaining proper weight.
C、To support the statement made by York Onnen.
D、To show the most effective way to lose weight.