Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage:
On May 29, 1973, Thomas Bradley, a black man, was elected mayor of Los Angeles. Los Angeles is the third largest city in the United States, with a population of three million. About sixteen percent of the city’s population are black.
News of this election appeared on the front pages of newspapers everywhere in the United States. Here is how one major newspaper reported the event: Los Angeles Elects Bradley Mayor, Defeating Yorty—Black Win 56% of Votes.
Bradley called his victory “the fulfillment of a dream.” During his childhood and youth, peo?ple had kept telling him, “You can’t do this, you can’t go there, because you’ re a Negro.” Nev?ertheless he had won a decisive victory over a man who had been the city’s mayor for three times. Bradley had won 56.3 percent of the votes; Yorty had won 43. 7 percent.
Los Angeles voters had many opportunities to judge Thomas Bradley and to form an opinion of him. The son of a poor farmer from Texas, he joined the Los Angeles police force in 1940. During his twenty-one years on the police force he earned a law degree by attending school at night. He was elected to the city council ten years ago. At the time of Los Angeles election three other American cities already had black mayors, but none of those cities had as large a population as Los Angeles. Besides, the percentage of blacks in those other cities was much larger. Cleve?land, Ohio, was thirty-six percent black when Carl Stokes was elected mayor of Cleveland in 1967. In the same year Richard Hatcher was elected mayor of Gary, Indiana, which was fifty-five percent black. In Newark, New Jersey, sixty percent of the population were black when Kenneth Glibson was elected in 1970. Thus the election of a black mayor in those cities was not very surprising.
In Los Angeles thousands of white citizens voted for Thomas Bradley because they believe he would be a better mayor than the white candidate. Bradley had spent forty-eight of his fifty-five years in Los Angeles. Four years ago Bradley lost the mayoral election to Yorty. This time Bradley won.
61. Thomas Bradley was elected mayor of Los Angeles because ______.
A、the black people made up a large percentage of the population in the city
B、more than half of its citizens, black and white, were in favor of him
C、he had spent forty-eight of his fifty-five years in the city
D、he was considered the best candidate in the history of the city
62. Bradley’s victory in the mayoral election attracted nationwide attention because _____.
A、Los Angeles was a major city in the U. S. with a relatively small black population
B、Los Angeles was the place where most of the major U. S. newspapers were based
C、56% of black voters and 44% of white voters in Los Angeles had voted for him
D、it had fulfilled the dream of the black people throughout the United States
63. Which of the following cities had the largest percentage of black population?
64. We may infer from the forth paragraph that Los Angeles voters _____.
A、believed that Thomas Bradley would give them many opportunities to judge him
B、had been given many opportunities so they have a high opinion of Thomas Bradley
C、had known Thomas Bradley well for his long years of public service in the city
D、had had many opportunities to elect Thomas Bradley mayor of the city
65. Why did the white voters choose Bradley over a white candidate?
A、Because he had proved to be a good policeman.
B、Because they expected him to do a better job.
C、Because he held a law degree from a good university.
D、Because they simply wanted to give him a chance.
Questions 66 to 70 are based on the following passage:
The U.S. generates about four billion tons of solid waste a year. More than 90 percent is composed of agricultural and mining wastes. About 3 percent is from industrial wastes. 250 mil?lion tons of garbage comes out from homes, schools, office buildings, stores and hospitals.
This mass of metals, paper, food, plastic, rubber and glass, which is all mixed together, seems of no earthly use to anyone.
Or is it? Many efforts across the country indicate that new technology, properly applied, might some day turn these millions of tons of garbage into an excellent source of raw materials for new uses.
Several new projects are carried out to study the possibility of treating wastes through pyrolysis—a system of reducing garbage to basic chemicals, liquids and gases which have com?mercial value. In Florida, a special tube system provides automatic transport of garbage to a cen?tral collection building.
In short, many new ideas are being tested, and many will be needed, since no one method is likely to prove suitable everywhere.
However, many difficult economic and social questions must be answered before real progress can be made. Can recovered materials compete with new materials? What will be needed as en?couragement to make resource recovery work? Will citizens pay the cost of changing our waste system?
66. The author suggests that garbage from home and public places _______.
A、makes up the largest portion of solid waste
B、makes up a small portion of solid waste
C、 is not really considered as solid waste
D、is considered of no practical value
67. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the question "Or is it?" in Paragraph Three?
A、Or is it true that this mass of solid waste is of no practical use?
B、Or is it right to bury all this mass of solid waste under earth?
C、Or is it wise to mix all this mass of solid waste together?
D、Or is it worthwhile to make so many efforts across the country?
68. Pyrolysis is a process which _______.
A、treats a large amount of industrial wastes
B、turns garbage into a new source of raw materials
C、mixes together different kinds of solid waste
D、provides garbage for a collection building
69. Which of the following is true concerning the issue of waste recovery?
A、Many new ideas have been adopted.
B、The present systems have been widely used.
C、Different methods are required in different places.
D、No garbage has been proved useful everywhere.
70. It can be implied from the last paragraph that _______.
A、great progress has already been made in resource recovery
B、recovered materials will be able to compete with new materials
C、working people in the U. S. have been encouraged to recover solid waste
D、citizens may be unwilling to pay the costs of changing the waste system
Questions 71 to 75 are based on the following passage:
Kate, a student in 8th grade, asked lots of questions in math class—until the teacher told her to stop. “He said I was confusing the other kids with my questions,” she recalls. “When boys asked questions, he took them a lot more seriously.”
You might have thought that such obvious forms of discrimination (歧视) had ended by now. But Esther Greenglass, a psychology professor at York University in Toronto, says many recent studies have found that girls may still be faced with mixed messages about self-confidence and success, which can lower their self-esteem and discourage them from achieving their poten?tial.
The problem worsens at about age 11 or 12, when girls start hitting puberty (青春期) and discovering boys. Many girls’ grades drop, and so does their self-esteem. “Girls get the message that, if you’re going to be popular, you can’t be too smart because the boys won’t like you,” says Greenglass, who has written extensively on sex roles and discrimination.
Often, girls also sense that boys are considered more capable. In studies in the United States, researchers found that when teachers asked questions, they almost always made eye con?tact with boys, unless they had attended courses raising their level of awareness. Adding to the problem, according to Greenglass, is the lack of female role models in old textbooks still found in many Canadian schools.
How are girls’ attitudes affected? Studies have shown that boys usually attribute their success to their superior ability, while girls attribute their own success to luck. When boys fail at a task, they tend to blame it on external factors; when girls fail, they blame their own lack of ability. Boys are more likely to try a second time to succeed.
71. The first paragraph intends to tell us that _______.
A、girls usually ask more questions than boys in class
B、girls often confuse teachers with many questions
C、teachers tend to give much more attention to boys
D、teachers believe that boys ask more serious questions
72. Findings by Professor Esther Greenglass indicate that _______.
A、sex discrimination in schools has disappeared in Canada
B、Canadian school girls are more self-confident than boys
C、school girls in Canada are confused about their roles
D、in Canada girls and boys achieve equal success at school
73. Researchers in the United States found that when teachers asked questions, _______.
A、they would first turned to boys for answers
B、they wanted to raise the awareness of boys
C、boys responded to them Immediately
D、girls avoided eye contact with teachers
74. We can learn from the passage that girls' lack of self-confidence has led to _______.
A、their misjudgment of their own success and failure
B、boys’ misunderstanding of their superiority
C、their inability to achieve academic success
D、boys’ blaming external factors for their failures
75. What is the best title of the passage?
A、Male and Female Role Models.
B、Puberty and Sex Difference.
C、Girls, Boys, and Success.
D、Sex Roles and Discrimination.