状语从句

就状语从句而言,主要是根据主从句的关系判断连词的使用。因此,在准备状语从句时,主要任务是弄清楚各种状语从句的连词。
1.时间状语从句的连词
表示时间的连词有when, while, as, by the time, before, after, since, till/until, as soon as,有些名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句,如the moment, the instant, each time,有些是固定句型如:no sooner … than hardly/scarcely …when。在这些连词的使用中应注意
① as强调同时,也表示一边……,一边……",while表示主句动作发生在从句的过程之中,要求从句谓语动词为状态动词或持续性动词,when的使用则比较简单,相当于汉语的"当……时候"。如:
Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ____ it comes to classroom tests.
A. when     B. since      C. before    D. after ?
四个选项都表示时间,但根据主从句间的关系可以判断答案 为A。

② 注意when的特殊句型
下列句型中when连接的不是时间状语从句,但考试中却常与其它时间状语从句的连词一块出题。
were/was doing something when …
were/was about to do something when …
had just done something when …
?
③ 注意no sooner … than ….和hardly/scarcely …when句中的时态。

④ 注意not … until 中时间状语可以提前。
如 ____ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home.
A. Before      B. Until      C. From      D.Since
比较常见的提前方式是将not until….提至句首,后面用肯定形式,主谓倒装。本题可以改成,Not until quite recently did most mothers in Britain take paid work outside the home.这时,句子采用主谓倒装结构,应注意。

⑤名词短语做连词引导时间状语从句时,如:the moment,the instant,the second,the minute都可做连词用,引导定语从句,意思是as soon as
You see the lightening ___ it happens, but you hear the thunder later.
A. the instant      B. for an instant      C. on the instant     D. in an instant
能够引导时间状语从句的是名词the instant,而不是由其构成的介词短语。

⑥ 注意含有时间状语从句的固定句型,如It won't be long before … 和It is …since两类句型。It won't be long before可以有三个变体,即:It was (not) + 一段时间 + before,It won't be + 一段时间+ before。如
Scientists say it may be five or ten years ____ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.
A. since      B. before      C. after     D. when

2.原因状语从句的连词
原因状语从句一般由because, since, as, now that, considering that, seeing that连接。对于表原因连词本身的区别考查相对较少,主要是与其它状语从句连词的对比。同学们要根据主从句的语意关系,确定是什么状语从句,然后在进行选择状语从句连词。如:
① ____ you are leaving tomorrow, we can eat dinner together tonight.(1999.6)
A. For     B. Since     C. Before      D. While

② ____ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.(1997.6)
A. For      B. Now      C. Since      D. Despite

注意:
1)for, because, since/as的区别。一般说来,for不表示原因,其所连接的是并列句,? 是一种解释说明,尤其是当用结果来反证原因时。如:
He must have experienced something very unpleasant, for he looks so upset.
You must try to rid yourself of your carelessness, for it often leads to errors.

2) 注意引导原因状语从句的还可以是considering/seeing that,其用法与since/as相同。如:
Considering that he is only a beginner, it is understandable for him to make such mistakes.
Seeing that you have come, you may as well stay here for a few days.

3.条件状语从句的连词
涉及到条件状语从句的考查题很多,如时态,虚拟语气等。就条件状语从句而言,同学们应掌握以下几点:
1) unless与其它连词的差别,unless表示的是If …not …的意思。

2) if only或only if是一种强调的条件状语从句。根据if only 与unless肯定与否定条件的差别。

3) provided (that)表示唯一的条件,相当于if and only if,on condition that 。

4)另外注意,引导条件状语从句的还可以是so/as long as /suppose/supposing, in case, once等。

5) 条件状语从句分为两大类:真实条件句和虚拟条件句。当从句所表达的条件是有可能实现的、有可能是真实的条件时,用真实条件句;如果从句所表达的条件是不可能实现的、与客观事实完全相反的条件或假设时,用虚拟条件句。真实条件句在使用中也有需要注意的事项:从句中的动词应该用一般现在时代替一般将来时;
用现在完成时代替将来完成时。
例:We’ll visit Europe next year ___________ we have enough money.
A) lest     B) until      C) unless      D) provided
如果我们有足够的钱,明年我们将访问欧洲。答案是D。

4.让步状语从句的连词
引导让步状语从句的连词很多,由though, although, even if, even though, however, no matter how/ what/ who等引导。但结构差别比较大,比较容易掌握。对让步状语从句的掌握要注意以下几点内容。
1) although/though连接让步状语从句,表示“尽管",从句用直陈语序,与汉语的结构类似。使用though, although时,务必避免与but连用。

2) as引导的让步状语从句要求用倒装结构。可提至句首的有名词、原形动词、副词、形容词等。可数名词单数形式不用冠词。如:
Child as he is, he behaves like a grown-up.
Fail as he did, he was not disappointed at all.
Much as I tried, I failed to persuade him.

3) No matter + 疑问词和疑问词 + ever引导让步状语从句,表示"不论谁""不论什么时间/地点/方式"等等,从句用直陈语序。

4) For all表示让步时后面可以接从句,也可以接名词短语,后接名词时常与其它类似短语比较:
For all that he has a master's degree, I don't think he can outdo me in many aspects.

5) 其它用来引导让步状语从句的还有whether …or, even if, even though,和"动词 + 疑问词+主语+情态动词",如:
Say what you will, he will turn a deaf year.So it's better to keep silent.
Doubt whom you may, you shouldn't doubt me.

6) even if, even though和as if, as though不同。后者常常要求使用虚拟语气。
例1? I’ve already told you that I’m going to buy it, _________.
A) however much it costs      B) however does it costs much
C) how much does it cost     D) no matter how it costs
全句的意思是:“已经告诉过你了,不管花多少钱,我都打算买它”。空格应填上正常语序的让步状语从句,所以答案应该是A。B和C都是倒装,所以不对;D) no matter how应后接形容词或副词,所以D也不对。
例2. _______ the calculation is right, scientists can never be sure that they have included all variables and modeled them accurately.
A) Even if      B) As far as      C) If only      D) So long as
即便计算是正确的,科学家们也无法肯定他们已经把所有的变量都包括进去并精确地模拟了它们。答案是A)。

5.方式状语从句则简单了许多,用来表示方式的主要是由in the same way, as和as if/though等引导。如:
I have made the change as you suggested.
I remember the whole thing as if it happened only yesterday.

6.结果状语从句的连词
结果状语从句所在句式:
1) so … that…/ such ….that
该句式中重要考查的是so和such的区别。so…that与such…that的区别在于:前者的省略号处是形容词或副词,而后者的省略号处最终是一个名词。“最终”的意思是,该名词前也可以出现形容词甚至出现修饰形容词的副词,但整个词组的中心词是这个名词。例如:

so nice a boy that…/such a nice boy that…
so beautiful/diligent/carefully … that…/such (fine weather/great improvement) that…

2) so that。该句式中主要考查so that 与其它短语的区别,如:in that/ for that/ but that

3) so much so that
该结构用于形容词或副词之后,表示"到如此程度以致于"。如:
He was very weak, so much so that he could not walk.
I long to visit Beijing, so much so that I dream about it every night.

4) 注意结构状语从句与too….to./. enough to…/ so… as to结构的不同。

7.目的状语从句的连词
目的状语从句由so that, in order that, in case等引导。就目的状语从句而言,第一,同学们应该清楚的是引导目的状语从句各连词所表达的语义差别,对于个别的状语从句中的时态要求应有所了解:
1)具体测试中,主要是根据主从句的语意逻辑关系来判断从句的属性选择正确的连词。

2)这类从句中常常用情态动词may/ might, can/ could, should等,以保证语气通顺自然。如lest后常用should + 原形动词,should可以省略。

3)注意其它表目的连词的用法,如for fear that表示"恐怕""以免"等:

8.地点状语从句
表示地点的自然是where或 wherever引导,要求同学们做到的就是在考试中能从上下文中看出从句表地点的特征。如:
① Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded ____ other more well-informed experimenters failed.(1998.1)
A. which      B. that      C. what      D. where
② I have kept the portrait ___ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.(1996.1)
A. which      B. where      C. whether      D. when
这种地点状语从句一般是与定语从句相比较,如上面第一题,也可能与其它状语相比较,

9. 比较状语从句
由than, the…the…, as…as引导。注意比较的两物须成分结构相同,
例:They usually have less money at the end of the month than ________ at the beginning.
A) which is      B) which was     C) they have      D) it is
全句意思是:“通常到了月底,他们的钱就比月初少了”。than后面引出一个比较状语从句作为比较的对象。比较的两分结构相同,只是后者略有所省略,than后面完整的句子应是:"than they have (money) at the beginning (of the month)"。题中省去了括号内的词。所以C) they have是答案。
又例:In the course of a day, students do far more than just _________ classes.
A) attend     B) attended      C) to attend      D) attending
本题中,than后面引出的比较状语从句,其结构应与前面的主句相符,所以答案是A) attend。全句的意思“在一天了,学生所做得远不止听课”。Do more than后面通常接不带to的不定式。

Exercises:

1. I had just started back for the house to change my clothes ___ I heard voices.
A、as
B、when
C、after
D、while
2. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave ___ something occurred which attracted my attention.
A、unless
B、until
C、when
D、while
3. I've already told you that I'm going to buy it, ___________.
A、however much it costs
B、however does it cost much
C、how much does it cost
D、no matter how it costs
4. ____, he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
A、Although much he likes her
B、Much although he likes her
C、 As he likes her much
D、Much as he likes her
5.  ____ the calculation is right, scientists can never be sure that they have included all variables and modeled them accurately.
A、Even if
B、As far as
C、If only
D、So long as
6. ____ their differences, the couple were developing an obvious and genuine affection for each other.
A、But for
B、For all
C、Above all
D、Except for
7. I am sure he is up to the job ____ he would give his mind to it.
A、if only
B、in case
C、until
D、unless
8. We'll visit Europe next year _____ we have enough money.
A、lest
B、until
C、unless
D、provided
9. ____ he works hard, I don't mind when he finishes the experiment.
A、As soon as
B、As well as
C、As far as
D、So long as
10. I took no notice of him, ___ he flew into a rage.
A、for that
B、so that
C、in that
D、but that
11. I was advised to arrange for insurance ___ I needed medical treatment.
A、nevertheless
B、although
C、in case
D、so that
12. The man mad was put in the soft-padded cell lest he ___ himself.
A、injure
B、had injured
C、injured
D、would injure
13. You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting ______ you don’t mind taking the night train.
A、provided
B、unless
C、though
D、until
14. Excuse me. If your call’s not too urgent, do you mind __ mine first?
A、I make
B、if I make
C、me to make
D、that I make
15. ______ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.
A、For
B、Now
C、Since
D、Despite
16. These two areas are similar _______ they both have a high rainfall during this season.
A、to that
B、besides that
C、in that
D、except that
17. Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded ______ other more well-informed experimenters failed.
A、which
B、that
C、what
D、where
18. I have kept that portrait ______ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.
A、which
B、where
C、whether
D、when
19. Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patients do not take drugs _____ directed.
A、like
B、so
C、which
D、as
20. Melted iron is poured into the mixer much _____ tea is poured into a cup from a teapot.
A、in the same way like
B、in the same way which
C、in the same way
D、in the same way as