名词性从句

一、概述:

名词性从句的功能相当于一个名词,它能在主从复合句中担任主语、宾语、介词宾语、表语和同位语。通常根据它们在复合句中所起的作用,分别称为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

1、引导名词从句的连接词有三个:

that:无词义,在引导宾语从句中可以省略(尤其在口语中),引导其他从句时不可省略。

whether,if:是否,其中whether可以引导所有名词从句;if仅可引导宾语从句,而且不可跟or not。

2、引导名词从句的连接代词有以下这一些:

(1)who:谁。作为主格

(2)whom:谁。作为宾格

(3)whoever:无论谁。who仅可表示疑问意义,the person who的概念要用whoever/whomever来表示。

(4)whose:谁的。所有格

(5)which:哪一个,哪一些。指人或物

(6)what:什么,…的东西。指物。表示两种意义:

第一种表示疑问意义,即“什么”。例:Do you know what that is?

第二种表示“…东西”, “…事情”.例:This is what he has asked for。

(7)whatever:无论什么

3、引导名词性从句的连接副词有:when(什么时间),where(什么地方),why(为什么),how(怎样,如何)连接副词除起连接作用外,还在从句中充当状语成分。

二、主语从句:用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。

1、that引导的主语从句:

例:_____ light travels in straight lines is known to all.

A.which   B.That   C.What   D.It

答案:B。这句话相当于It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.意思是:众所周知,光以直线传播。

2、what 、whatever、whoever引导的主语从句。

例:______ know the truth will tell you about it

A.What that   B.Whoever   C.Whom that   D.That who

答案:B。

例:______ is quite clear.

A.Where is the fighting   B.Why is the fighting   C.What war is   D.What is war being

答案:C。

3、由“it”作形式主语的主语从句结构,已形成固定用法和译法。常见的有以下几种:

(1)、It is +名词词组+从句

It is a fact that…事实是…

It is good news that……是好消息

It is a question that……是个问题

It is common knowledge that……是常识

(2)、It is +形容词+从句

It is necessary that…有必要…

It is clear that…很清楚…

It is (un)likely that…很 (不太)可能…

It is important that…重要的是…

(3)、It is +过去分词+从句

It is said that…据说…

It is reported that…据报道…

It has been proved that…已证明…

It must be pointed out that…必须指出…

(4)、It+不及物动词+从句

It seems that…好象是…

It happened that…碰巧…

It follows that…由此可见…

It has turned out that…结果是…

二、宾语从句:

1、宾语从句用连接词that引导,that仅起连接作用,如需要在从句中作宾语、主语、表语等则用what引导:

例:Although Anne is happy with her success she wonders ______ will happen to her private life.

A .that   B.what   C.it   D.this

答案:B。

虽然安对自己的成功感到高兴,但她却怀疑这对她的私人生活会发生什么影响。此处what作为从句中的主语。

2、宾语从句也可以用how, when, which, why, who, where, 等词引出。从句用陈述语序,即使主句是一个问句,宾语从句也不能用疑问句的语序。

例;She asked me______ I liked best.

A.that   B.how   C.which   D /

答案:C。

她问我喜欢哪一个。

3、作介词的宾语:在英语中只有5个介词(except, in, but, beside, save)后面允许用引出从句,其他介词后面只能用what, how, whether等引导.

例:Criticism and self-criticism is necessary ______ it helps us to find and correct our mistake.

A.by that   B.at that   C.on that   D.in that

答案:D。

在帮助我们发现和纠正错误的过程中,批评和自我批评是非常必要的。

4、宾语从句的注意点:

(1)、在宾语从句中,that一般可以省略。但是有的谓语动词后的that不可以省略,这类词有: agreeargueholdlearnmaintainobservecontendconceiveremarkstatesuggestassumeannounceindicate

(2)、如果宾语从句后面跟有补语,要用形式主语it来代替,而将从句放到补语后面去。

例:He has made it clear that the meeting will not be postponed

(3)、宾语从句的时态呼应:如果主句的谓语是过去时,宾语从句的时态要按照时态呼应规则进行相应的调整。但是若宾语从句表示的是客观真理或自然观念,其谓语时态仍用一般现在时。

例:The teacher told the students that the Pacific Ocean ______ the largest ocean in the world.

A.be   B.is   C.were   D.was

答案:B

三、表语从句:表语从句中的连系动词连用,其结构为:主语+连系动词+表语从句。表语从句可由how,when,where,why,what等引导常用的连系动词有be,seem,remain,look等。

1、“the reason…that”表示:“理由是…”不要将that误用为because:

例:The reason why I plan to go is ______ if I don’t.

A.because she will disappointed

B.that she will be disappointed

C.because she will have been disappointed

D.for she will be disappointed

答案:B。

2、“it(this,that)is because…”结构中,because引导定语从句。

例:This is ______ iron contains more carbon than steel.

A.that   B./   C.because   D.what

答案:C。

四、同位语从句:在idea,fact,news,hope,reason,discovery,belief,thought, result等名词后,可用that或连接代(副)词引入的从句作同位语,说明名词的具体内容,我们称这种从句为同位语从句。同位语从句通常由that引导,但随着先行词的不同,也可由whether, when,where,how, what,why等引导。引导同位语从句可用疑问词how,why等。并且它们前面有时可加介词of和as to

例:There are signs ______ restaurants are becoming more popular with families.

A.that   B.which   C.in which   D.whose

答案:A。

例:It is a question ______ he did it.

A.how   B.why   C.that   D.if

答案:A。

例:She had no idea ______ she thought of him suddenly.

A.with why   B.with that   C.for what   D.as to why

答案:D         

五 、 名词性从句的考查主要集中以下几点:

1)从句的语序为直陈语序

2)名词性从句的连词的选择,而其中以what的使用最为广泛,        

3)连词what为缩合连词,相当于all that/ everything that等,而与之经常在同一题出现的which为疑问连词,表示"哪一个?"的概念,that做名词性从句的连词在从句中不做任何成分,也因此经常省略。在解这种题时一是看从句所表达的含义,最重要的是看连词在从句中是否做主语、宾语或表语。

4)注意whoever 与who的差别。whoever相当于anyone who,而who为疑问连词。但从四级考试来看,更倾向于whoever 与whatever, whichever等的比较。也就是说,测试倾向于句子的理解,而不只是语法规则的记忆。
        
5) 除what以为,when, where, why也都可做缩合连词来用应引以注意,如:
        I still remember when this used to be a small quiet village.
        Is this where you and yours got robbed the other day?
        
6) 名词性从句考查设疑的另一点就是从句与非从句的比较,如1)中是否可以用it 或this,3)中是否可以用one等。
        
7) 同位语从句一般以that为连词者句多,这类从句的特点是从句表示与其同位的名词的具体内容,连词that没有任何词汇意义,也没有任何句法功能。

Exercises:

1. We'll have to finish the job,_____.
A、long it takes however
B、it takes however long
C、long however it takes
D、however long it takes
2. “I wish you would just forget about it.” “I can’t. I want to know ______ she said about us.”
A、that
B、when
C、what
D、it
3. _____ progress helps to relieve scarcities(紧俏物资)is a fact accepted by all economists.
A、Technological
B、That technological
C、Although technological
D、There is technological
4.  _____ surprises many youngsters.
A、Butterflies are insects
B、Butterflies being insects
C、The fact that butterflies as insects
D、The fact that butterflies are insects
5. He didn’t live up to _____ had been expected of him.
A、what
B、which
C、that
D、all what
6. _____ some mammals came to live in the sea is not known.
A、Which
B、Since
C、Although
D、How
7. _____ the drought in Kansas has become less serious .
A、It is apparently that
B、It appears that
C、It must have been that
D、There is appearance that
8. The mere fact _____ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does not mean that it will not occur.
A、what
B、which
C、that
D、why
9. _____ is interested in the job may apply for it.
A、Who
B、Whomever
C、Whoever
D、He that
10. _____ was not our concern.
A、If or not he might pass the examination
B、Whether he passed the examination or not
C、However he might pass the examination
D、Though he might pass the examination
11. You should make it a rule to leave things_____you can find them again
A、when
B、where
C、then
D、there
12. Can you make sure ______ the gold ring?
A、where Alice had put
B、where did Alice put
C、where Alice has put
D、where has Alice put
13. By success I don't mean ____ usually thought of when that word is used.
A、what is
B、that we
C、as you
D、all is
14. --We haven't heard from Jane a long time. --What do you suppose _____ to her?
A、was happening
B、has happened
C、to happen
D、having happened
15. Go and get your coat. It's _____you left it.
A、there
B、where
C、there where
D、where there
16. When I try to understand ____ that prevents so many Americans from being as one might expect it seems to me that there are two causes.
A、why it does
B、what it does
C、what it is
D、why it is
17. Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. ______
A、However late is he
B、However he is late
C、However is he late
D、However late he is
18. --Do you remember _____ he came? --Yes, I do . He came by car.
A、how
B、when
C、that
D、it
19. ______she couldn't understand was _______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lesson.
A、What , why
B、That , what
C、What , because
D、Why , that
20. After the war, a new school building was put up ________there had once been a theatre.
A、that
B、where
C、which
D、when