定语从句

定语从句,又称关系从句,在句子中起定语作用,修饰一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰一个句子。被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词,定语从句通常跟在先行词的后面,由关系词(Relative)引出。关系词包括关系代词和关系副词。其中,关系代词有:that,which,who,whom,whose。关系副词有:when,where,why。关系词除了用于引导从句外,还代替先行词在从句中充当一定的语法成分,如主语、宾语、定语和状语等。

  • 关系代词引导的定语从句:
  • 指代物的关系代词引导定语从句:指代物的关系词有which,that,当that,which 在从句中作动词宾语时,在大多数情况下可以省略。

例:The hours ______ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people.

A.in which  B. on which  C. when  D.that/which

答案D。孩子们花费在与电视人物的单向联系上的时间毫无疑问会影响他们与现实生活中人物的关系。

  • 指代人的关系代词引导的定语从句:可用指代人的关系代词有:who,whom。其中,who 在从句中做主语或宾语,whom在从句中作宾语。

例:______ breaks the law will be punished.

A. Anyone  B. One  C. A man who  D.No matter who

答案 C。

3、既指代人又指代物的关系代词引导的定语从句:可指代人的又可指代物的关系代词有:whose,that。whose 在从句中作定语。

例:Will you please show me the girl ______ name is Wei Fang.

A her  B who’s  C whose  D which

答案 C。

4、要注意的问题:

(1)、在定语从句中起宾语作用的关系代词常常省去。

例:Have you found the book (that)you want?

(2)、当先行词是all,everything,something,nothing等不定代词或被first,last,only,few,much,some,any,no以及形容词最高级等词修饰时,应该用关系代词that,不用which。

例:This is the most difficult book _______.

A.what I have ever read  B.which I have ever read

C.I have ever read it  D.that I have ever read

答案 D。

(3)、当并列的两个先行词分别表示人和物时,要用关系代词that引导定语从句。

例:We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools______ we had visited there.

A.which  B.that  C.it  D.what

答案 B

  • 关系副词引导的定语从句:引导定语从句的关系副词代替与其相应的先行词,并且在从句中分别起时间、地点和原因状语作用。关系副词在意义上常常相当于一个“介词+which”这类关系副词有:when,why,how,where。关系副词常用替代,that有时甚至可以省略。

例:The goals______ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.

A.after that  B.for which  C.with which  D.at which

答案 B。他过去一生为之奋斗的目标在他看来似乎已不再重要。

例:Living in the central Australian desert has its problem, _____ obtaining water is not the least.

A.for which  B.to which  C.of which  D.in which

答案 C。生活在澳大利亚中部沙漠会遇到一些难题,其中尤其是获取水。

例:That is the reason ______ I am not in favor of revising the plan

A.what  B.when  C.where  D.why

答案 D。这就是我不赞成修改计划的原因。

例:English serves as a common tongue I countries ______ people speak many different languages.

A.which  B.why  C.where  D.that

答案 C。在口头语言混杂的国家内,英语起着通用语的作用。

  • 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句:
  • 限定性定语从句起修饰限定作用,与所修饰的词关系密切,如果拿掉,会造成意思不清楚,有时甚至会失去意义,不能成立;关系代词在从句中作宾语时可省略;书写时主句与从句之间不能用逗号;英译汉时,一般把从句放在所修饰的名词或代词前面。

2、非限定性定语从句起附加说明,即使去掉,意思仍然成立;关系代词即使在从句中作宾语也不能省略;书写时主句和从句之间用逗号分开,从句不能用关系代词that引导;英译汉时,一般将主句和从句分开译。

例:I want to buy the house, _____ has a garden.

A.that  B.which  C.where   D.when

答案 B。

  • 注意的问题:同一个定语从句,是限定性的还是非限定性的,在释义上可能有显著差别:

例:He has a daughter who works in a hospital.(限定性定语从句)。

他有一个在医院工作的女儿。(可能还有别的女儿,不在医院工作)

He has a daughter, who works in a hospital.(非限定性定语从句)

他有一个女儿在医院工作。(只有这么一个女儿)

四、“as”引导的定语从句:

  • as引导的限定性定语从句:主要用于在固定搭配当中,如:so…as, such…as, the same …as 等也可用来引导定语从句。

例:It wasn’t such a good dinner ______ she had promised us.

A.that   B.which  C.as  D.what

答案 C。

  • as引导的非限定性定语从句:as代替整个句子,对句子进行说明。该从句的位置较为灵活,可位于主句的前面,或插在主句中间,或位于主句的后面。通常用逗号将其与主句隔开。可译为“如…”“像…”等。

例:______ is known to the world, Mark Twain is a great American writer.

A.That  B.Which  C.As  D.It

答案 C

Exercises:

1. Do you know the student ______?
A、whom I often talk
B、with who I often talk
C、I often talk with
D、that I often talk to
2. It was raining again, ______ is very bad for our crops.
A、it
B、that
C、what
D、which
3. We were all overjoyed at the news ______ the experiment turned out a success.
A、that
B、which
C、when
D、what
4. Hay ______ too much moisture will spoil.
A、contains
B、that containing
C、that contains
D、which to contain
5. Caves and hollow trees are not the only places ______.
A、where are found bats
B、where bats are found in
C、where bats are found
D、in which bats to find
6. The two friends, ______ met by chance on a train for Shanghai.
A、whom had not been seen by each other for many years
B、had not seen each other for many years
C、who had not seen each other for many years and
D、who had not seen each other for many years
7. Now we can fly to Tokyo. There was a time _____ we had to take a boat.
A、how
B、what
C、why
D、when
8. This steel pipe has the same diameter (直径) ______ that plastic one has.
A、of which
B、which
C、such as
D、as
9. You may rely on it _____ everything will be ready by Monday.
A、which
B、when
C、that
D、what
10. The farmer uses wood to build a house ______ to store grains.
A、with which
B、where
C、which
D、in which
11. _______ is often the case that a new idea, much preliminary activity and optimistic discussion produce no concrete proposal.
A、That
B、It
C、Which
D、As
12. This was the place ______ last year.
A、which I visited
B、where I visited
C、when I visited
D、in which I visited
13. That’s the hotel _____ last year.
A、which we stayed
B、at which we stayed
C、where we stayed at
D、where we stayed in
14. The audience , _______,enjoyed the performance very much .
A、most of them were students
B、most of whom were students
C、most of which were students
D、most of whom being students
15. That tree , ______ are almost bare ,is a very old one.
A、whose branches
B、its branches
C、which’s branches
D、on which the branches
16. He studied hard at school when he was young , _______contributes to his success in later life.
A、which
B、that
C、which
D、so that
17. The book ______ is not in the library.
A、that I need it
B、I need it
C、which I need it
D、I need
18. Unfortunately there was _____ to prevent the accident.
A、something that we could do
B、anything that we could do
C、nothing which we could do
D、nothing we could do
19. Joseph’s car has a flat tire. ______ now is to walk to the nearest telephone.
A、That he can do
B、All what he can do
C、All he can do
D、He can do something
20. Mr. Smith will move into his new house next Monday, ______it will be completely finished.
A、by that time
B、by which time
C、by then
D、by the time