强调

强调(emphasis)就是使句子的某一部分比一般情况下显得更加重要。在书面英语中,一是通过加上某些强调词或通过某些强调句型来表示,二是通过改变句子的正常词序也就是倒装来表示的。

1.强调句型“It is / was…that / who / whom…

当被强调部分为sb.,可用who/whom, 也可用that,其它情况一律用that。强调主语时,that后的谓语动词必须与被强调的主语人称与数保持一致。

例如:

A)Tom does the experiment in the factory everyday.汤姆每天在工厂里做实验。

B)It is Tom who (that) does experiment in the factory eve ryday.是汤姆每天在工厂里做实验。(强调主语)

C)It is the experiment that Tom does in the factory everyday.汤姆每天在工厂里做的是实验。(强调宾语)

D)It is in the factory that Tom does the experiment everyday.汤姆每天是在工厂里做实验。(强调状语)

E)It is everyday that Tom does experiment in the factory.汤姆是每天在工厂里做实验。(强调状语)

2. 强调句型对状语进行强调须注意

1) 强调时间、地点、原因或方式状语时,要用that,不能用when, where, why或how。

It was at the gate of our school that we gave the visitors a warm welcome. (强调地点状语)

It was with great joy that he received the news that his long lost son would soon return home. (强调程度状语)

It is by bus that Mary usually goes to school. (强调方式状语)

It was three years ago that I came to this school. (强调时间状语)

It was on Monday night that all this happened.这一切是发生在星期一晚上。

It was because he was ill that he didn't go to school.他是因并而没来上学的。

It was in a different way that they played the game.他们比赛的方式是不同的。

It was not until 11 o'clock last night that my father returned.我父亲昨夜直到11点才回来。

2) as,since和though等引导的原因、让步、结果等状语从句,不能用这种句型。

例1对句:As he had no car, he stayed at home.

错句:It was as he had no car that he stayed at home.

因为没有车,他就呆在家里。

例2对句:Although they are poor, they are generous.

错句:It is although they are poor that they are generous.

虽然他们穷,但他们慷慨。

3) 对"not...until..."结构的强调,要用"It is/was not until...that..."这一固定句型。由于否定已经前移,that后只能用肯定形式。如:

1.It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.

4) .使用强调句型对状语进行强调时,有必要将其与下列句型区分开来。

例1) It was in the evening that the soldiers arrived at the small mountain village. (强调句型)

It was evening when the soldiers arrived at the small mountain village.(when引导时间状语从句,it表示时间)

例2) It was at 3 o'clock that they came back. (强调句型)

It was 3 o'clock when they came back. (when引导时间状语从句,it表示时间)

例3) It is for three hours that they have been back. (强调句型)

It was three hours before they came back. (before引导时间状语从句,it表示时间)

It is three hours since they came back. (since引导时间状语从句,it表示时间)

再如:It was raining when they came back.

It is true that he once went to Canada.

It is a surprise that Mary should have won the first prize.

5).强调含有定语从句的主、宾、状语时,要确定好强调标志"that"的位置。如:

Was it at the school which was named after a hero that he spent his childhood?

It was in the shop which was opened last month that he bought the book.

It was the girl whose father worked abroad that lent me the book.

Was it in 1982 when you were in college that you got to know her?

6) 强调句型的疑问句型

a. 强调句的一般疑问句结构为:Is/Was it...that/who...?

Is it you who often help the old woman with her housework ?

Was it in her fifties that Mary began to learn Russian ?

Was it at a theatre that Abraham Lincoln was shot ?

b. 强调句的特殊疑问句结构为:疑问词+is/was it that...?注意在强调句的疑问句型中,强调标志that/who后只能使用陈述语序。

例1: When was it that he made up his mind to take this course?他什么时候决定选修这一课程的?

例2:Why is it that he doesn’t like the book?他为什么不喜欢这本书?

例3:Who was it that invented the telephone?

例4 :How was it that they managed to finish the work in such a short time ?

例5Where was it that you found the lost child ?

比较:Was it by plane that did he come back ?(×)

Was it by plane that he came back? (√)

When was it that the Second World War broke out? (√)

When was it that did the Second World War break out ?(×)

7)“It is + a + 形容词 +名词 + that”表示"无论怎样……都不……",是一种反语式的强调用法;这一句型的肯定形式一般表示否定意义,反之否定形式表示肯定意义。

例 1 It is a wise man that never makes mistakes. 智者千虑,必有一失。

例 2 It is a wise father that knows his own child.无论怎样聪明的父亲,也不会完全了解自己的孩子。

例3 It’s an ill wind that blows nobody(any)good.此失则彼得,没有使所有的人都受害的坏事。

2.强调句型“what is / was…”

此句型可以强调主语,宾语和表语。

例1What he is is a genius.要说他是个什么的话,他是个天才。

例2What I want to do now is to beat him.现在我想做的是揍他。

例3What I like is her style. 我喜欢的是她的风格。 

3.强调词do

do (does,did)用于强调谓语动词的语气时,要符合以下条件:(1)句子是肯定句;(2)谓语动词为一般现在时或一般过去时;(3)谓语动词是单独的行为动词或单独的连系动词(be除外)。

例1The little girl does want to see her mother.这个女孩非常想见她的母亲。

例2I do like to eat apples.我的确喜欢吃苹果。

例3Do stay a while.务请待会儿。

例4They did study very hard yesterday.

4.其他强调词

其他强调词如at all, very, just, ever, not half / nearly / possible,by all possible means, by all means, by no means, nothing but,by far, no matter wh-等。

例1I don’t know him at all.我根本不知道他。(at all在否定句中含义为“根本不”)

例2Do you know him at all?你究竟知不知道他?(at all在疑问句中的含义为“究竟”)

例3What is worth doing at all is worth doing well.凡是值得做的,就应该好好做。(肯定句中at all为“只要有一丝毫”)

例4This is the very book I want.这正是我所要的书。

例5My very own fault is to trust him.我真正的过错就是相信他。

例6What ever do you want?你到底想要什么?(此处ever和疑问代词不能写在一起)

例7Who ever will come?究竟是谁来?

例8My homework is not half done yet.我的家庭作业根本没有做。

例9We must help him by all possible means.我们一定尽一切可能帮助他。

例11He is nothing but a liar.他不过是个骗子。

例12No matter when you call on me,you are welcome.不论你什么时候来,我都欢迎。

Exercises:

1. It is these poisonous products_ _________can cause the symptoms of the flu, such as headache and aching muscles.
A、who
B、that
C、how
D、what
2. I feel it is your husband who_ _________for the spoiled child.
A、is to blame
B、is going to blame
C、is to be blamed
D、should blame
3. It was for this reason __________her uncle moved out of New York and settled down in a small village.
A、which
B、why
C、that
D、how
4. ----Where was it _________the road accident happened yesterday ? -----In front of the market.
A、when
B、that
C、which
D、how
5. It was not until she had arrived home __________her appointment with the doctor.
A、did she remember
B、that she remembered
C、when she remembered
D、had she remembered
6. It was not until 1956__________liberated.
A、that the town was
B、did the town
C、was the town
D、that was the town
7. It was because of bad weather _______the football match had to be put off.
A、so
B、so that
C、why
D、that
8. ________she first heard of the man referred to as specialist .
A、That was from Stephen
B、It was Stephen
C、It was from Stephen
D、It was Stephen that
9. Was it during the Second World War ________he died?
A、that
B、while
C、in which
D、then
10. Who _______ helped you work out the maths problem ?
A、was he
B、it was who
C、was it that
D、it was
11. It was where there had been a theatre ______they built a new modern school.
A、where
B、in which
C、that
D、so
12. _____ that the trade between the two countries reached its highest point.
A、During the 1960’s
B、That it was in the 1960’s
C、It was in the 1960’s
D、It was the 1960’s.
13. It was the training that he had as a young men ______ made him such a good engineer.
A、that
B、has
C、what
D、later
14. It was the ability to do the job____ matters not where you come from or what you are.
A、one
B、that
C、what
D、it
15. It was in the club __________ I met her.
A、where
B、that
C、in which
D、when
16. It wasn’t __________ yesterday that I saw her.
A、on
B、in
C、after
D、until
17. _________ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work.
A、It existed
B、They had
C、There existed
D、There had
18. In bacteria and in other organism, __________ is the nuclei acid DNA that provides the genetic information.
A、both
B、which
C、and
D、it
19. 19. It was about 600 years ago_____ the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.
A、that
B、until
C、before
D、when
20. It was only when I reread his poems recently _____I began to appreciate their beauty.
A、until
B、that
C、then
D、so