虚拟语气

虚拟语气是一项语法难点,为了让学员们便于理解与记忆,我们把虚拟语气分成三大块来讨论:

1.名词从句中的虚拟语气标志词+should+动词原形

2.条件从句中的虚拟语气 ①三种基本态 ②倒装虚拟句 ③混时虚拟句 ④含蓄虚拟句 ⑤跳层虚拟句

3.其它情形中的虚拟语气(wish/would rather/It’s high time…/If only…/lest)

一.三种基本形态(1)
表虚拟的时间 if从句谓语形式主句谓语形式
现在:did / were would (should, might, could)+do
过去:had done/ had been would (should/might/could)+have done(been)
将来:were to/ should+do would (should, might, could)+do

三种基本形态(2)(这是基础,建议牢记下面的例句,争取能脱口而出)
与现在事实相反:If I had enough money, I would buy a book.
与过去事实相反:If I had had enough money, I would have bought a book.
与将来事实相反:If I were to have enough money, I would buy a book.
If I should have enough money, I would buy a book.

二、倒装虚拟句(只能与过去/将来事实相反,省去if,只有三种倒装形式)
Had I had enough money, I would have bought a book.
Were I to have enough money, I would buy a book.
Should I have enough money, I would buy a book.

三、混合时间虚拟语气(主要是抓住时间状语)
(对过去事实虚拟+对现在事实虚拟)
If I had studied English at school, I could read the English novel now.
(对现在事实虚拟+对过去事实虚拟)
If she were not so careless, she wouldn’t have made such a mistake.

四、含蓄虚拟句(在四级考试中目前还未出现此考点,但在阅读中常见)
What would I have done without you?
But for their help, I would not have finished the task.
But that the doctor arrived on time that day, they would have been dead.
Given more time, I would have been able to finish the test.

五、跳层虚拟句(即句子一半为虚拟,另一半为陈述语气;but前句用虚拟而or/otherwise后句用虚拟) (but) He would put on weight, but he doesn’t eat much. (与现在事实相反)
He would have put on weight, but he didn’t eat much. (与过去事实相反)
(or, or else, otherwise) I forget where I read the article, or I would show it to you now. (与现在相反)
Mary couldn’t have received my letter, otherwise she would have replied before now. (与过去相反)

六、名词从句虚拟语气(1) ask, advise, beg, command, demand, decide, desire, insist, order, prefer, propose, require, recommend, request, suggest, urge等表示命令、要求、建议等含义的动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用(should)+动词原形, eg. I suggest / suggested that we (should) go tomorrow.

名词从句虚拟语气(2) It is +(形容词/过去分词/特定名词)+that的从句中,形容词主要是表示令人吃惊的、重要的、必要的、关键的等词汇。形容词:astonishing, amazing, advisable, appropriate, crucial, desirable, essential, important, imperative, keen, necessary, natural, normal, odd, proper, preferable, strange, sorry, shocked, surprising, urgent, unusual, vital等。

名词从句虚拟语气(3) 过去分词:decided, desired, demanded, ordered, requested, recommended, suggested等;名词:advice, decision, desire, demand, suggestion, motion, pray, resolution, wish, preference, proposal, recommendation, requirement, idea, order等

七、其它虚拟语气

Wish…
I wish I knew the answer.(与现在事实相反)
I wish I had known the answer. (与过去事实相反)
I wish you would shut up. (与将来事实相反)

if only…
If only I were taller. (与现在事实相反)
If only he had followed your advice! (与过去事实相反)
If only the rain would stop. (与将来事实相反)

It is (high/about) time…
It is time you thought about your future.

would rather… I would rather you didn’t speak rudely to her. (与现在事实相反)
I’d rather you hadn’t spoken rudely to her. (与过去事实相反)

Lest…, in case…, for fear that…(引导的是目的状语从句,(should)+动词原形)
eg. He took his umbrella lest it should rain.

大学英语虚拟语气考题总结:答案的特征
1.(should)+动词原形(一般式/被动式/否定式)记住信号词(名词,动词,形容词,分词等)以及lest.
2. 一般过去时:wish/If only…/would rather/It’s time (high/about) that….
3.基本形式(主要考与过去和将来相反的虚拟语气),特别注意时间状语(混合时间虚拟)
4.倒装的两个时间:与过去,与将来相反;三个形式(Had/Were/Should)提前大写,if省去;
5.but/or/or else/otherwise(跳层虚拟语气)

Exercises:

1. If the whole operation ________ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.
A、was not planned
B、has not been planned
C、had not been planned
D、were not planned
2. Jean doesn’t want to work right away because she thinks that if she ________ a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often.
A、has to get
B、were to get
C、had got
D、could have got
3. If it had not been for your help, I __________ in trouble now.
A、might have been
B、should have been
C、would have been
D、would be
4. ________ so busy, I should have called on you.
A、Should I not be
B、Had I been
C、Had I not been
D、I had been not
5. _________ we should be glad.
A、Were they to arrive tomorrow
B、They were to arrive tomorrow
C、Were they arriving tomorrow
D、They would arrive tomorrow
6. ________ he be interested in that film, he might go to see it with me.
A、Should
B、Would
C、Are
D、Were
7. He must have had an accident, or he ____ then.
A、would have been here
B、had to be here
C、should be here
D、would be here
8. Five minutes earlier, ____ we could have caught the last train.
A、and
B、but
C、or
D、so
9. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I ____ your advice.
A、follow
B、had followed
C、would follow
D、have followed
10. If only the committee ____ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.
A、approve
B、will approve
C、can approve
D、would approve
11. She wished she _________ it.
A、didn’t say
B、hadn’t said
C、wouldn’t say
D、say
12. To be frank, I’d rather you ____ in the case.
A、will not be involved
B、not involved
C、not be involved
D、were not involved
13. It’s already 5 o’clock now. Don’t you think it’s about time ____?
A、we go home.
B、doesn't need to be corrected
C、we went home
D、we can go home
14. The driver looked over the engine carefully lest it ________ on the way.
A、goes wrong
B、went wrong
C、would go wrong
D、go wrong
15. He suggested __________ to tomorrow’s exhibition together.
A、us to go
B、we went
C、we shall go
D、we go
16. I don’t think it advisable that Tom ____ to the job since he has no experience.
A、is assigned
B、will be assigned
C、be assigned
D、has been assigned
17. We desire that the tour leader _____ us immediately of any change in plans.
A、inform
B、informs
C、informed
D、has informed
18. It is recommended that the project _________until all the preparations have been made.
A、will not be started.
B、is not started
C、not be started
D、is not to be started
19. We are all for your proposal that the decision ____.
A、be put off
B、was put off
C、should put off
D、is to put off
20. It was essential that the application forms ________back before the deadline.
A、must be sent
B、would be sent
C、be sent
D、were sent