非谓语动词的比较

1. 比较不定式和动名词作宾语

1). *有些动词的后面既可跟动名词又可跟不定式,且意义相同,但尤其要注意的是有些意义是不同的,一定要区分。

stop to do/ s top doingregret to do /regret doingremember to do/ remember doing

forget doing/ forget to dotry to do努力去做/ try doing 试验着去做

mean to do 打算,故意去做/mean doing 意味着hate to do 不想去做/hate doing讨厌quit to do 停下来去做/ quit doing 停止做chance doing 冒险试试/chance to do碰巧

2). advise, allow, encourage, permit等动词后面带动名词作宾语,不定式作宾补, 即:advise…+ doing; advise … sb. to do

3). need/require/want/deserve + doing(主动表被动)

need/require/want/deserve +to do(主被动分别表示)

2. 比较不定式、分词作宾补

1). 不定式和分词作宾补的区别

e.g. I heard him talking to his mother. (现在分词表示正在进行)

e.g. I heard him talk to his mother for an hour. (不定式,表示完成的动作,全过程)

2). 现在分词和过去分词作宾补的主要区别

现在分词表示主动的动作;过去分词表示被动的动作;少数几个不及物动词的过去分词作宾补表示完成的动作。

e.g. I hurried there only to find everybody gone.

3. 比较不定式、分词作定语

1). 不定式、分词作定语的主要区别

不定式表示即将发生的动作;现在分词表示正在发生的动作;过去分词表示已发生的动作。

2). 现在分词和过去分词作定语的主要区别

a). 现在分词表示主动,正在进行

b). 过去分词表示被动,完成的动作

4. 比较不定式、分词作状语

1). 不定式和现在分词作状语的区别

a). 不定式通常表示意想不到的结果,现在分词则没有这种意思。

e.g. He jumped down from the burning house, breaking his legs.

b). 不定式经常用在形容词后面表示原因。

e.g. He was happy to see his parents in good health.

* 现在分词和过去分词通常置于句首。

2). 现在分词和过去分词作状语的主要区别

a). 现在分词含有主动的意思。

e.g. Following its footprints, the zoologists spotted the hungry panda.

b). 过去分词含有被动的意思,或是表示状态。

e.g. The pop singer, followed by two body guards, came to meet his fans. 

5. 比较不定式、分词做主补

1). 不定式、分词作主补时,意义上区别不大。

e.g. The most difficult job is to clean the greasy kitchen.

e.g. The most difficult job is cleaning the greasy kitchen.

2). 现在分词和过去分词作主补

e.g. The game sounds interesting. (表示主语的特征,常用于事物)

e.g. I am interested in the game. (表示主语的状态,常用于人)

常见的做主补的分词有:amused, amusing, astonished, astonishing, bored, boring, charming, complicated, confused, confusing, crowded, delighted, devoted, disappointing, disappointed, discouraged, discouraging, frightened, frightening, frustrated, frustrating, interested, interesting, married, missing, pleased, promising, puzzled, shocked, shocking, surprised, surprising, tired, tiring, upset等。这些词实际上已经转化为形容词。

6. 比较不定式和动名词做主语

有时不定式和动名词做主语在意思上区别不大。

e.g. To know all about English is one thing; to know English is quite another.

Knowing all about English is one thing; knowing English is quite another.

但在一些固定结构中不能互换。

Exercises:

1. ______in the matriculation for postgraduate in a short time is really a hard nut.
A、To make high scores
B、Making high scores
C、To make low goal
D、Making low goal
2. The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports, each ____one major point in contrast with the other.
A、make
B、made
C、is to make
D、making
3. The students expected there _____ more reviewing classes before the final exams.
A、is
B、being
C、have been
D、to be
4. It is not uncommon for ____problems of communication between old and young.
A、there to be
B、there being
C、there to being
D、there be
5. If we don’t start out now, we must risk ______ the train.
A、miss
B、missing
C、being missed
D、to miss
6. The flexibility of film allows the artist _______ unstrained imagination to the animation of cartoon characters.
A、to bring
B、brining
C、is brought
D、brings
7. Although the lecture had already been on for five minutes,I still was not able to find a chair____.
A、to sit
B、for to sit on
C、to sit on
D、for sitting
8. Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort ______ her?
A、please
B、pleased
C、to please
D、having pleased
9. Lots of empty boots were found under the old man’s bed. He must have done nothing but ______.
A、drink
B、to drink
C、drinking
D、drunk
10. The local health organization is reported ___ twenty-five years age when Dr. Adudon became its first president.
A、to be set up
B、being set up
C、to have been set up
D、having been set up
11. ___of the burden of ice , the balloon climber up and drifted to the South.
A、To be free
B、Freeing
C、To free
D、Freed
12. ___exceptions, the rule may stand.
A、Allow for
B、Allowing for
C、To allow
D、To allow for
13. All flights___ because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.
A、were canceled
B、had been canceled
C、having canceled
D、having been canceled
14. John painted her sitting in a chair with her hands ___
A、folding
B、to have folded
C、to fold
D、folded
15. His victory in the final was no more ____than I had expected.
A、convincing
B、convinced
C、to convince
D、being convincing
16. There is no point ___further.
A、argue
B、to argue
C、arguing
D、being arguing
17. Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to its always ___with other elements, most commonly with oxygen.
A、combined
B、having combined
C、combine
D、being combined
18. I recommend you ___ what he says.
A、do
B、doing
C、to do
D、to doing
19. I am sorry to hear that you resorted ___
A、to cheat
B、to cheating
C、cheating
D、cheat
20. He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, ___ insufficiently popular with all members.
A、being considered
B、considering
C、to be considered
D、having considered