非谓语动词III----动名词

1. 形式

动名词

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

2. 动名词的动词特征和名词特征

1). 它具有动词特征

它可有时态和语态的变化,也可以带宾语和状语。

2). 在有些句子结构中它具有名词特征

它可以带冠词,可以被形容词、代词及名词所有格修饰。

3. 动名词的句法功能

1). 作主语

e.g. Improving your study habits will improve your grades.

Listening to music gives me pleasure.(主语Listening )

注意:主语可置于句尾:
a. 用 It is 后接 no use. no good, fun 等的句型
1. It is no use learning theory without practice.
2. It is no fun being lost in rain.
b.用 There + be + no + v-ing 的句型
1.There is no joking about such matters.
2. There is no getting along with him. (简直无法与他相处)

2). 作主语补语

e.g. As a teacher what I hate most is cheating.

My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (补语sleeping)

3). 作宾语作动词/动词短语/介词的宾语(置于动词或动词短语或介词的后面)

例如1. I cannot help laughing. (我禁不住笑了起来)(宾语laughing)
2. You should avoid quarrelling with your sister.(宾语quarrelling)
3. You should practice speaking English more.(宾语speaking)
4. I'm sorry for giving you so much trouble. (介词for,宾语giving)
5. The book is worth reading. (介词worth, 宾语reading)
6. I reached him by calling his office. (介词by, 宾语calling)
7. The police arrested(逮捕)him for speeding. (介词for, 宾语speeding)
8. I have the pleasure of speaking to the famous author. (pleasure of + 宾语speaking)
9. He takes a great interest in studying languages. (interest in + 宾语studying)

注意:a) 上面三个句子中的动词:help, avoid, practice 只能用动名词作宾语。这类动词还有:
dislike 厌恶 admit 接受repent 后悔acknowledge 承认 escape避免deny 否认postpone/delay延迟resent 怨恨mind 介意 miss 错过risk 冒风险finish 完成avoid 避免delay 耽误 consider 认为fancy 想象 excuse 原谅include 包括 imagine 想象resist 抵制suggest 建议 advise, allow, anticipate, avoid, dread, encourage, excuse, keep, prevent, propose, recall, recollect, risk,……
还有短语类:
keep (on)继续 don't mind 不介意 cannot help 不禁 give up 放弃put off 延迟leave off 停止burst out 闯出……

b).在demand, deserve, need, require, want等动词后面,作宾语的动名词表示被动的意思。

e.g. My shirt requires ironing.

c)在下列的句子结构中,介词 in 被省略掉:
1. She is busy (in) correcting her exercises.
2. He spent two hours (in) reading book.
3. There is no use (in) talking with him now.
4. Is it any good (in) taking cold water baths?

d). 用在固定结构中

动名词常与be worth, have difficulty/trouble (in), it be no good/ no use/ worthwhile, there be no need / no point in , how / what about, what’s the point of, what’s the use of / be busy doing sth., spend some time/money doing sth, have a hard time (in) doing sth.,等词组连用。

4). 作定语(Attribute)
动名词放在所修饰的名词前面作为定语,表示该名词的用途或有关的动作。
1. sleeping car 卧车2. walking stick 手杖3. printing shop 印务馆
4. reading room 阅读室5. swimming pool泳池6. washing machine洗衣机

4. 动名词的时态和语态
1) 被动式(being + v-ed)
当动名词的逻辑主语所表示的是动作的对象时,动名词要用被动语态。
例如1. He dislikes being interrupted(被打岔) in his speech.
2. They couldn’t stand being treated(被对待) like that.
2)完成式 (having + v-ed)
动名词的动作发生在谓语动词之前,要用完成式。
例如1. We regret having been unable to inform you of the meeting.
2. The students’ having done(完成) the work so well made us very happy.
3)完成式的被动语态 (having been + v-ed)
例如1.I heard of his having been chosen(被选为) to be the coach of the team.
2.Some of our customers complained of having been treated(被对待) rudely.
4)在动词 need, want, require, deserve 之后的动名词(作为宾语),要用主动语态来表示被动的意思。
例如1. The flowers in the garden want watering(需要浇水).

5 动名词的逻辑主语(Implied Subject)
在句子中,除了原有的主语之外,属于动名词的"主语",也就称为"逻辑主语",一般位于动名词的前面。

1). 作主语的动名词有自己的逻辑主语时, 在动名词前加"物主代词(如:my, his...)"或"名词所有格(如:Mary's, Dog's...)"
例如1. His coming here helped us a lot. (主语/逻辑主语his, 动名词coming)
2. Tom's escaping from the prison made trouble for the jailer.(主语/逻辑主语Tom,动名词escaping)

2). 作宾语(Object)的动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,在动名词前加"物主代词"或"名词所有格"
例如1. Do you mind my smoking in the romm? (逻辑主语my, 动名词smoking)
2. He insisted on Mary's staying there.(逻辑主语Mary, 动名词staying)

3). 注意:在下列情况中,不能使用所有格:

a) 作为逻辑主语的名词/代词为无生命时

例如I cannot say there is no fear of the news spreading among intimate friends. (逻辑主语news)
b) 代词为 all, both, each, few, several, some, this 等作为逻辑主语时:
例如1. I remember all of them saying it .
c) 数词、名词化形容词(如 the three, the old...)作逻辑主语时:
例如1. In spite of the three telling the same story, I could not believe it.
d). 结构中的逻辑主语受从句或短语修饰时:
例如Is there any chance of the people in the back of the room talking a little louder?

4). 当动名词的逻辑主语是其所表示的动作的对象时,要使用被动式。

例如I can’t go without being invited.

Exercises:

1. The match was cancelled because most of the members ______ a match without a standard court.
A、objected to having
B、were objected to have
C、objected to have
D、were objected to having
2. The traditional approach _______with complex problem is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems.
A、to dealing
B、in dealing
C、dealing
D、to deal
3. Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy _______ for her examination.
A、to prepare
B、to be prepared
C、preparing
D、being prepared
4. _________ in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for.
A、The girl was educated
B、The girl educated
C、The girl’s being educated
D、The girl to be educated
5. Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used ______ late for his lecture.
A、to have students
B、for students’ being
C、for students to be
D、to student’s being
6. I appreciate ____ to your home.
A、to be invited
B、to have invited
C、having invited
D、being invited
7. Mark often attempts to escape ____ whenever he breaks traffic regulations.
A、having been fined
B、to have been fined
C、to be fined
D、being fined
8. I would appreciate ____it a secret.
A、your keeping
B、you to keep
C、that you will keep
D、that you keep
9. The thief took away the woman’s wallet without____.
A、being seen
B、seeing
C、him seeing
D、seeing him
10. I’ve enjoyed ____ to talk with you.
A、to be able
B、being able
C、to been able
D、of being able
11. No one can avoid ____ by advertisements.
A、to be influenced
B、being influenced
C、influencing
D、having influenced
12. The man in the corner confessed to ____a lie to the manager of the company.
A、have told
B、be told
C、being told
D、having told
13. That young guy still denies ____the fire behind the store.
A、to start
B、having started
C、start
D、to have started
14. Your hair wants ____. You had better have it done now.
A、cut
B、to cut
C、cutting
D、being cut
15. Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used ____late for his lecture.
A、to have students
B、for students' being
C、for students to be
D、to students' being
16. I have no objection____ your story again.
A、to hear
B、to hearing
C、to having heard
D、to have heard
17. I'll never forget ____you for the first time.
A、to meet
B、to have met
C、having to be meeting
D、meeting
18. I will remember to write to you often. If I had remembered ____the window, the thief would not have got in.
A、to close
B、closing
C、to have closed
D、having closed
19. Ann never dreams of ____for her to be sent abroad very soon.
A、there being a chance
B、there to be a chance
C、there be a chance
D、being a chance
20. After ________ for the job, you will be required to take a language test.
A、being interviewed
B、interviewed
C、interviewing
D、having interviewed