非谓语动词II---分词

一. 分词分现在分词(present participle)和过去分词(past participle)。现在分词的结构就是在它的后面加词尾ing,过去分词的词尾是ed。
现在分词有时态和语态的变化(见下表),而过去分词则没有。

现在分词

主动式

被动式

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

完成进行式

having been doing

/

当现在分词表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作发生时,用现在分词的完成式(having done),分词在表示一个被动的动作时,如果这个动作正在进行或与谓语动词的动作同时进行时,就用现在分词的被动式

二、两种分词都具有形容词和副词的作用,在句中可以做定语、表语、补语和独立结构(状语)等。
1. 分词作定语
1) 分词作定语既可以放在所修饰的词之前,作前置定语,也可以放在所修饰的词后面,作后置定语。其作用相当于一个定语从句。例如:
Where are the reserved seats? (=Where are the seats which have been reserved?)
预定的座位在哪里?
This is a pressing problem. (=This is a problem which is pressing.)
这是一个紧迫的问题。

2) 分词作后置定语可分为限制性(紧跟在所修饰的中心词之后)和非限制性(用逗号与其所修饰的中心词分开)两种,其作用分别相当于一个限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。例如:
The funds raised (= which have been raised) are mainly used for helping the homeless.
筹集的资金主要用来帮助那些无家可归的人。
There are many students waiting (= who are waiting) to get examined.
有许多学生在等待检查。
This book, written (= which is written) in simple English, is suitable for beginners.
本书是用浅显的英语写的,适合初学者。

3) 分词常和形容词、副词或名词构成合成形容词作定语。例如:
The flower-carrying girl must be waiting for someone.
那位手持鲜花的姑娘一定在等人。
The newly-built building is our office building.
这座新建的大楼是我们的办公楼。

4) 有些不及物动词的过去分词作定语,并不表示被动的意思而是表示完成。这类过去分词常作前置修饰语。例如:
There are a lot of fallen leaves in autumn.
秋天有许多落叶。
The film describes the story about the police who pursue an escaped man.
这部电影描述的是警察抓逃犯的事。
常用的这一类词有:fallen, faded, returned, retired, risen, grown up, vanished等。

2.分词作表语:

1) 有一些可以做表语的现在分词和过去分词的用法是固定的。例如:amazing, amazed, amusing, amused, convincing, convinced, confusing, confused, disappointing, disappointed, encouraging, encouraged, exciting, excited, contented, inviting, missing, misunderstanding, inexperienced等。这些分词没有严格意义上的被动、静态、动态、已完成或正在进行这样的含义。它们源自动词,有动词的用法。以最常见的interesting和 interested为例。若对某事/某人感兴趣,就用be interested in Sth./sib.的结构,主语一般都是人;如果某事或某人本身让别人感到有意思,让人感兴趣的话,就用sth./sb. is interesting.

2) 现在分词表示主语所具有的特征,常常是物做主语,过去分词表示主语所处的状态,常常是人做主语。

e.g. The music is very pleasing to ear.

e.g. The teacher is pleased with his answer.

3. 分词作宾语补足语
1) 跟分词作宾补的动词有:catch, have get, keep, hear, find, feel, leave, make, want, start, notice, observe, watch, set等。例如:
When they returned home from the holiday, they found their house stolen.
当他们度假完回到家时,发现房子被盗了。(过去分词表示被动)
We want this work finished quickly.
我们要求这项工作很快完成。

2) 在复合宾语中,用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成逻辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,表示宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑上的动宾关系。例如:

There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself heard.
由于十分吵闹,讲话人没法让人听到他的声音。
When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by an old woman.
他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。

3) *注意区别:有些使驭动词和感官动词后可以跟上动词原形和分词做宾补,但表示不同的意义。例如:

have sb. do sth.让某人做某事.

have sb. doing sth. 让某人连续较长时间做某事

see sb. do sth看见某人做某事的全过程

see sb. doing sth.看见某人正在做某事

4. 分词作状语
1) 分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、让步、条件、方式或伴随状况。通常可转换成相应的状语从句;表示方式或伴随状况的可以转换成并列句或非限制性定语从句。例如:
Confined to bed (= Because she was confined to bed), she needed to be waited on in everything.
她卧病在床,什么事都需要人伺候。(作原因状语)
Having only book knowledge (= If you only have book knowledge), you will not be able to work well.
如果只有书本知识,你就不可能做好工作。(作条件状语)
They stood there [b]waiting for the bus. (=They stood there and waited for the bus.)
他们站在那里等公共汽车。(作方式状语)

2) 现在分词和过去分词作状语时的用法比较
不管是现在分词还是过去分词作状语,如果单独作状语,其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致。分词作状语通常可以转换成一个相应的状语从句,如果状语从句中的谓语动词为被动结构,就用过去分词;如果状语从句中的谓语动词为主动结构,就用现在分词。有时为了强调,分词前可带连词when, while, if, though, as if, unless等一起作状语,以便使句子的意思更清楚、更连贯。例如:
Working hard (If you work hard), you will succeed.
如果你努力,你会成功的。
Though defeated (= Though he was defeated), he remained a popular boxer.
虽然他被击败了,但他仍然是一个受人喜爱的拳击手。

5. 分词的独立结构
1) 分词作状语时,要特别注意其逻辑主语必须和谓语动词的主语一致。否则,分词必须有自己的主语,这种带主语的分词被称为分词的独立结构,或叫独立主格。在句中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件等。例如:
The project finished, they had a two weeks’ leave.
完成那个计划后,他们休了两周假。
He being absent, nothing could be done.
由于他缺席,什么事也没法干。

2) 独立结构有时也可以用“with/ without + 名词(或代词的宾语)+ 分词”的结构,表示伴随状况。例如:
They sat there silently, (with) their eyes fixed on the lake.
他们静静地坐在那里,眼睛看着湖面。
With him helping me, I felt lucky.
有他的帮助,我感到很幸运。

Exercises:

1. ____ with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain does not seem high at all.
A、When compared
B、Compare
C、While comparing
D、Comparing
2. No matter how frequently ____, the works of Beethoven always attract large audience.
A、being performed
B、performed
C、to be performed
D、performing
3. While ____ the sun, the satellite has sent more than four billion bits of information back to earth.
A、having orbited
B、having been orbited
C、being orbited
D、orbiting
4. ____ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge of the earth.
A、Having believed
B、Believing
C、Being believed
D、Believed
5. When I caught him ____________ I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.
A、cheating
B、cheat
C、to cheat
D、to be cheating
6. As early as 1647, Ohio made a decision that free, tax supported schools must be established in every town ______ 50 households or more.
A、having
B、to have
C、to have had
D、having had
7. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys ____________ to go to school.
A、to be encouraged
B、being encouraged
C、been encouraged
D、be encouraged
8. If I correct someone, I will do it with as much good humor and self-restraint as if I were the one ________.
A、to correct
B、correcting
C、having corrected
D、being corrected
9. There seemed little hope that the explorer, ________ in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.
A、to be deserted
B、having deserted
C、to have been deserted
D、having been deserted
10. The children went there to watch the iron tower ____.
A、to erect
B、be erected
C、erecting
D、being erected
11. The manager promised to keep me ____ of how our business was going on.
A、to be informed
B、on informing
C、informed
D、informing
12. In Australia the Asians make their influence ____ in business large and small.
A、feeling
B、felt
C、feel
D、to be felt
13. After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute ____.
A、being settled
B、to be settled
C、had settled
D、as settled
14. Don’t get your schedule ____; stay with us in this class.
A、to change
B、changing
C、changed
D、change
15.  If you want ____ you have to get the fund somewhere.
A、that the job is done
B、the job done
C、to have done the job
D、the job that is done
16. The computer works very fast, ____ data at the speed of light.
A、having handled
B、handled
C、handling
D、handles
17.  ____ in a seemingly endless war, the general was forced to evaluate the situation again.
A、Since the loss of 50,000 soldier
B、Because of 50,000 soldiers having lost
C、Having lost over 50,000 soldiers
D、50,000 soldiers were lost
18. ____ such a good chance, he planned to learn more.
A、To be given
B、Giving
C、Having given
D、Having been given
19. Homework _____ on time will lead to better grades.
A、done
B、having done
C、be done
D、to have been done
20. If I correct someone, I will do it with as much good humor and self-restraint as if I were the one ____.
A、to correct
B、correcting
C、having corrected
D、being corrected