非谓语动词I

不定式

1.不定式的形式 

 

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

to do

to be done

进行式

to be doing

/

完成式

to have done

to have been done

完成进行式

to have been doing

/

*1). 不定式的否定形式是“not + 不定式”;

2). 不定式前面可以加特殊疑问词,如:how to do, when to leave, what to do等。

2. 不定式的句法功能

1). 作主语

a). 不定式作主语时,常用it 放在句首代替不定式,而将不定式移到谓语后面。

e.g. To complete the 24-stored building in 10 months was a great achievement. è It was a great achievement to complete the 24-storied building in 10 months.

b). 有时用“介词for/ of +代词/ 名词”表示不定式的逻辑主语,但要注意它们在意思上的区别。

用of 的这些词有:kind, good, brave, thoughtful, wrong, considerate …

2). 作宾语

a). 动词 + 不定式

能带不定式作宾语的动词有:afford, agree, ask, attempt, beg, begin, bother, care, choose, claim, consent, decide, demand, desire, endeavour, expect, fail, fear, forget, hate, help, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, pledge, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, resolve, start, undertake, venture, volunteer, vow, want, wish等。

b). 动词 + wh-词+ 不定式

能以这种结构作宾语的动词有:consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, guess, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, understand, wonder等。 

3). 作宾补

a). 动词 + 名词/ 代词+ 不定式

能带这种结构作宾补的动词有:advise, allow, ask, beg , cause, challenge, command, compel, enable, determine, encourage, expect, *feel, find, force, get, hate, *have, *hear, *help, inform, invite, *let, like, *make, mean, need, *notice, notify, oblige, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, *see, send, teach, told, tempt, trouble, urge, want, warn, watch, wish等。

* 有*号的动词后面的不定式不带to。

b). 动词 + it + 形容词/ 名词+ 不定式

能带这种结构作宾语的动词有:consider, feel , judge, make, think等。

e.g. He feels it challenging to be a supermarket manager.

c). 动词+名词/ 代词+ to be … / to have …

能带这种结构作宾语的动词有:appoint, believe, choose, declare, find, guess, imagine, judge, prove, report, select, think 等。

*这种结构多用于正式文体,在口语或非正式文体中常用宾语从句。

e.g. We believe that he has the best collection of stamps in the country. 

4). 作定语

a). 由only, last, next序数词或形容词最高级修饰的名词常用不定式作定语。

e.g. He is always the last one to leave the office.

b). 不定式常用作下列/代词的定语:ability, ambition, anything, attempt, capability, chance, curiosity, desire, decision, determination, effort, failure, intention, need, nothing, opportunity, place, plan, promise, reason, right, something, tendency, time, way, wish等。

e.g. I have no desire to travel.

c). 不定式动词或动词短语及其所修饰的词有时有动宾关系。

* 不定式后面不能再带宾语,即不能说:

e.g. Here is a letter for you to type it.

5). 作状语

a). 表示目的

*用in order to和so as to引出的不定式更能突出目的性;在否定形式或被动语态的不定式前更为常见。in order to可以置于句首或句尾;so as to通常放在句尾。

e.g. In order to overcome difficulties, we must work hard.

b). 表示结果

e.g. John left his hometown ten years ago, never to return.

c). 表示原因

e.g. They laughed to see the clown. = They laughed because they saw the clown.

d). 不定式常用于修饰下列形容词:able, afraid, angry, apt, careful, careless, certain, clever, considerate, difficult, eager, easy, fit, happy, interesting, likely, lucky, quick, ready, right, sure, thoughtful, thought, less, unable, unwilling, wrong等。

* 1). 作状语的不定式的逻辑主语必须与句子主语一致。

2). 某些作状语的不定式短语的含义相当于一个条件句。

3. 不定式的进行式、完成式和被动语态

1). 不定式的进行式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

e.g. I am glad to be working with you.

2). 不定式的完成式

a). 不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作之前。

e.g. It is nice to have talked to you.

2). should like / would like / love等结构后面,表示过去未实现的动作

e.g. I’d like to have gone with you on your hike last week.

* 在表示“打算、计划”等含义的过去时动词后面,可用不定式的完成式表示动作没有实现。

e.g. We planned to have finished the work before supper.

3). 不定式的被动态

a). 当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动语态。不定式的逻辑主语可能出现在句中,也可能省略。

e.g. To be invited to speak here is a great honour.

b).有些不定式被动语态已成为固定词组,需要记住。

e.g. Women have become a force to be reckoned with in society.

c). 不定式的主动语态有时也可表示被动含义。

i). 习惯用法

e.g. I am not to blame.

e.g. The house is to let.

ii). 有时既可用不定式的主动语态又可用被动语态;但意义上有所差别。

e.g. My tyre is punctured. There is nothing to be done. I have to walk home. 我的车胎被扎了。没办法,我只得步行回家。

e.g. Could you get me something to read? I have nothing to do. 能找点书给我看看吗?我无事可干。 

4. “too … to”, “enough … to”及其变体的意义

1). “too … to”, “enough … to”的意义

a). “too … to”中的不定式有否定意义,表示“太……不能”。

e.g. She spoke too fast for us to follow.

b). “enough … to”中的不定式有肯定意义,表示“足够……能”。

e.g. The hall is big enough to hold a hundred people.

2). “too … to” 变体的意义

a). “not / never too … to” 表示肯定的意思。

e.g. We are never too old to old.

b). “too … not to” 表示肯定的意思。

e.g. He is too smart not to see your point.

c). “but/ only too” 表示肯定的意思。

e.g. We are only too happy to have you with us.

d). “too ready/ eager to”表示“时刻准备”或“急于”“too apt / inclined to”表示“易于”。

e.g. He is too inclined to be cheated. 

5. 不带to 的不定式

1). 用于feel, have, hear, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, see, watch等动词后面作宾语补语时。

** 当动词see, make, hear用于被动语态时,不定式要保留to

2). 在had better和would rather后面。

e.g. Would you rather drive there or go by bus?

3). help后面的不定式可以不带to,也可保留to。

4). rather / sooner than 位于句首时。

e.g. Rather than go by bus, he walks to his office every day.

* 位于句末时,其后的不定式可以不带to,也可保留to。

5). 在except / but 后面且句中动词含do的某种形式。

e.g. I missed the last bus. I could do nothing but stay in the village for the night.

We have no choice but to wait.

6). 主语部分含有动词do的一定形式时,作主语补语的不定式可以省去to, 也可保留to。

e.g. The thing to do is (to) clear the road.

7). 在“let +动词”组成的固定词组中。

e.g. Hold it tight and don’t let go.

Exercises:

1. Sir Denis, who is 78, has made it known that much of his collection ______ to the nation.
A、has left
B、is to leave
C、leaves
D、is to be left
2. It is not unusual for workers in that region _________.
A、to be paid more than a month later
B、to be paid later than more a month
C、to pay later than a month more
D、to pay later more than a month
3. The ancient Egyptians are supposed _________ rockets to the moon.
A、to send
B、to be sending
C、to have sent
D、to have been sending
4. They are going to have the serviceman __________ an electric fan in the office tomorrow.
A、install
B、to install
C、to be installed
D、installed
5. There is a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _________ trouble.
A、making
B、to make
C、to have made
D、having made
6. I’d rather read than watch television; the programs seem __________ all the time.
A、to get worse
B、to be getting worse
C、to have got worse
D、getting worse
7.  Could you find someone________?
A、for me to play tennis with
B、for me to play tennis
C、play tennis with
D、playing tennis
8. The pressure ________causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.
A、to compete
B、competing
C、to be competed
D、having competed
9. You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from _____ to suspend your tent.
A、there
B、them
C、which
D、where
10. ________ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master’s degree.
A、To become
B、Become
C、One becomes
D、On becoming
11. That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but ____ the police.
A、called in
B、calling in
C、call in
D、to call in
12. If I had remembered ________ the window, the thief would not have got in.
A、to close
B、closing
C、to have closed
D、having closed
13. Mr. Johnson preferred _____ heavier work to do.
A、to be given
B、to be giving
C、to have given
D、having given
14. The teacher didn’t think we needed _____ how important the exam was.
A、to be told
B、to tell
C、having told
D、being told
15. The piano weighs three hundred pounds, so it is too heavy ________.
A、for me to move
B、to move by me
C、for me not to move
D、not to move by me
16. Mary likes listening to the radio much better than _______ television.
A、to watch
B、watch
C、watching
D、watched
17. When the police broke the door open they found the young man _______badly wounded on the floor.
A、to lie
B、lying
C、being lying
D、lieing
18. The last man _______ the sinking ship was the captain.
A、left
B、leaves
C、to leave
D、to be leaving
19. It is not unusual for workers in that region____.
A、to be paid more than a month late
B、to be paid later than more a month
C、to pay later than a month more
D、to pay late more than a month
20.  ______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master’s degree.
A、To become
B、Become
C、One becomes
D、On becoming