形容词和副词

1. 形容词的位置
单个形容词修饰名词的时候,一般前置。但是下列情况下形容词却要后置。
1)当形容词修饰由some,no,any,加上thing,body,one构成的复合代词时,总是后置。
【例如】I have something urgent to do, so I have to go now.
There must be something wrong with him.

2)以able或ible结尾的形容词与all, every, only或形容词最高级连用时,常常后置。
【例如】These are the best books available in the university library.
Paris is one of the most beautiful cities imaginable.

3)形容词词组常后置。
【例如】I know a girl good at singing.多个形容词修饰同一名词的顺序
有几个形容词修饰同一名词时,词序无固定规律,一般的顺序为:1)限定词(冠词/代词/数词)→2)性质→3)大小/形状/新旧/年龄/颜色→4)名词性定语(包括动名词)→5)名词。
【例如】
China is a great, modernized socialist country.
Nancy is reading an old, exciting, romantic love story.
Mary has just bought herself a pretty green cotton dress.
My sister knew a tall intelligent young American professor whom she met in college.

2. 作表语的形容词
1)很多以a开头的形容词,如asleep, afraid, awake, alone, aware, alive, ablaze, alike等,一般只作表语。
【例如】He was so tired that he soon fell asleep.
Whether he was alive or dead in the earthquake is still unknown.
2) 这类形容词有时可以放在名词后作后置定语。
【例如】He is one of the persons alive after the flood.
The old man was the only person awake at the moment.
3) 这类形容词中有些像alike(相同),alone(单独),amiss(差别),afire(燃烧着),adrift(漂流),afloat(漂浮), afoot(徒步)等既是表语形容词,又是副词,它们的用法不同。
【例如】 The twins look so much alike that it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.
My brother and I alike are funs of pop music.
4)一些表示身体健康情况的形容词,如ill, well, unwell, fit, poorly等,一般作表语。
【例如】I don’t feel well, I need to go to see the doctor.
How to keep fit is a popular topic these days

副词
1. 副词在句中的位置
1)修饰形容词或副词时,通常放在前面。
2)当句子的谓语动词是行为动词时,频度副词一般放在谓语动词之前。句中有be或助动词、情态动词时,放在其后。
【例如】
I often go to the cinema on weekend with my husband.
I can hardly understand him for what he said was really confusing.
I have never been abroad until now.

3)程度副词修饰形容词或副词,通常放在被修饰的形容词之前。但是enough总是放在所修饰的形容词或副词之后。
【例如】
The boy didn’t work hard enough.
He is quite diligent. But his achievement is not good enough.

4) only的位置比较灵活,修饰哪个词,就放在哪个词的前面,以示强调。
【例如】
I only saw John yesterday. I didn’t see his wife.
I have bought two kilos of potatoes only.
Only in the afternoon, can you borrow books from the university library.

5)only too pleased to do sth: 非常想干某事
I only too pleased to go home.

2). 副词的作用与构成
副词用来修饰形容词、副词和动词。大部分副词由“形容词+ly”构成,如:happy→happily, slow→slowly, wonderful→wonderfully等。但有些以ly结尾的词却不是形容词,而是副词,如:friendly, brotherly, likely, lonely等。有些词可以作形容词也可以作副词,如:early, late, fast, hard, low, much, near等。

3) fairly, quite, rather表示“十分,非常”。fairly语气最弱,放在不定冠词之后;quite语气较强,放在不定冠词之前;rather语气最强,可放在不定冠词前后,也可放在比较级前和too之前。
【例如】
This is a fairly interesting story. I want to tell it to my friends.
You have made quite a few mistakes in you writing. (quite a few = many)
The weather is rather colder today than I have expected. The student was rather too dull.

4). 具有两种形式的副词
英语中有的副词兼有两种形式:一种是与形容词同形;另一种是在该形容词后面加副词词缀ly构成。这两种形式的副词在词义和用法上有一定的差异,有的甚至完全不同。
常见的这类副词有:firm稳固地firmly坚固地direct径直地directly恰好 flat平淡地flatly直截了当地short突然shortly不久even甚至evenly平均地clean完全地,径直地 cleanly清洁地,干净利索地clear隔开,不接触clearly清晰地,明显地close近closely紧密地,接近地easy安适地 easily容易地dead突然地,完全地deadly死一般地,非常fair公平,正直地fairly相当地? right还好,适当地rightly改正地,合理地,正确地 just正好justly 公正地 sharp突然地,急剧地sharply严厉地
【例句】
Don’t come too close. /I closely resemble my father.
The train stopped dead./She turned deadly pale. ??
She slipped right to the bottom of the icy mountain. / I am rightly informed.
例1):Fix the post ____in the ground.
A) firmed   B) firmly   C) firmly   D) firm
答案为D。firmly意味“坚固地,顽固地”,在此句中不妥,firm意为“稳固地,牢固地”,合乎题意要求。句意:把这个桩子牢固地钉在地上。
例2)Communism can never be taken as the equivalent of eating ____and riding____.
A) free; free   B) freely; freely   C) free; freely   D) freely; free
答案为A。free意为“免费地”,freely意为“自由自在地,不受约束地”。句意:共产主义决不能理解为白吃饭和免费乘车。
例3)The desk was ___in the center of the room.
A) direct B) directed C) directing D) directly
答案为D。题意:书桌刚好在屋子中央。

比较级
1. 比较级的修饰词
比较级可以用much, far, a lot, a great deal, a little, a bit, by far来修饰。
【例如】She is much more beautiful than I have thought.
The situation is far more complicated than I have imagined.
I can do a little better than you. Let me do it.

2. 形容词、副词比较级
1)比较的成分要对等。
【例如】
He is more concerned about others than about himself. My father is in better health now than last year. The population of China is larger than that of America.
2) the +比较级……,the +比较级……意为“越……,越……”。前面部分是从句,后面部分是主句。
【例如】
The harder you work, the more successful you will be.
The earlier you come, the better place you can find

3. 没有比较级的形容词和副词
1)有些程度副词,如:quite, rather, comparatively, incomparably, relatively, fairly等与形容词连用具有“比较”含义。故这时句中的形容词不能再使用比较级。
【例如】
It is a set of comparatively new instrument in our laboratory.
This book is rather difficult for the juniors, but fairly easy for the seniors.

2)下列几类形容词也没有比较等级:
(1)表示“终极”意义或绝对概念的形容词或副词。如:absolute(ly), blind, dead, excellent, entire, living, full, perfect(ly), round, relative, wrong等。
(2)表示时间、方位或方向的形容词或副词。如:back, backward, forward, front, past, monthly, weekly, present, southern, vertical等。
(3)部分表示事物性质、物质材料或结构成分的形容词。如:atomic, cultural, economic, educational, golden, political, scientific, silken, urban, wooden等。
(4)本身具有“最”或“唯一”概念的形容词。如:maximal, mere, minimal, matchless, sole, only unique等。

4. 不用than的比较
并不是所有的形容词表示比较时都用than,英语中有几个以-or结尾源于拉丁语的形容词,由于其原级已具有比较的含义,在表示比较时不用 than,而用to。这类形容词不多,计有:anterior / prior to(先于),posterior to (在……之后), superior to(优于),inferior to(劣于),junior to(年幼于),senior to(年长于)。
【例如】
This task is prior to all others.
He thinks he is superior to his classmates because his father is a very important people.
The Red Army was inferior in equipment but superior in morale to the enemy.
My arrival in Beijing is posterior to that of our manager.
It happened prior to my arrival.
The official’s rank is senior to his father’s.
Mary is two years senior to me, and her sister is junior to me by three years.

5. 几个含有than的结构
1) no more than
只,仅仅,只不过是(=only),后面接名词或数词,在句中起形容词作用。例如: The street is no more than two miles long.这条大街只有两英里长。 What he is saying is no more than a joke.他所讲的只不过是个玩笑而已。 The estimate of 20012 tons was probably no more than another wild assumption of theirs. 这个二万零一十二吨的估计数字,也许只不过是他们的又一个胡编乱造。
2) no more... than (= not...any more than)
和……一样不(not...any more than)。Than前后都是否定的含义。
A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. (= A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.)鲸和马都不是鱼。(鲸之非鱼类,正如马之非鱼类。)
My elder brother is no more a singer than I am.我哥哥和我都不是歌唱家。
They will no more sell their freedom for roubles than for dollars.他们既不会以他们的自由换取美元,也将同样不会以自由换取卢布。
3)no other than
只有,正是。它常用来加强语气,多用于书面语。
The murderer turned out to be no other person than the inspector himself.结果是,那个杀人犯不是别人,正是巡官自己。
The beaten enemy had no other choice than to surrender.被打败的敌人只有投降。
4)no better than
和……一样,实际上等于(practically the same as)
A man who cannot read and write is no better than the blind.不识字的人跟瞎子没有两样。
The patient is no better than he was yesterday.病人的情况和昨天一样。
5)no less... than
和……一样,不逊于。其中的than前后都是肯定的意思。
This person is no less diligent than he used to be.这个人和从前一样勤奋。
The technique of writing is no less difficult than that of the other arts.写作技巧和其他艺术技巧一样困难。
Sunlight is no less necessary than fresh air to a healthy body.日光和新鲜空气对身体健康是同样必不可少的。
6)no less than
多达,竟有……之多,不下于(as many as, as much as)。
In the battle, the Red Amy wounded were no less than twenty thousand.在这次战斗中,红军伤员不下两万人。
He won no less than 1000 yuan in the lottery.他居然中了一千元的奖券。
The bank pays him a yearly salary of no less than ,000.银行给他的年薪竟高达九万。
7) other than
意思是:不同于,除……之外;rather than意思是:而不是。
In no country other than Britain, it has been said, can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.
除了在英国,一个人不可能在其它国家在一天内经历四季。

Exercises:

1. I had just started back for the house to change my clothes ___ I heard voices.
A、as
B、when
C、after
D、while
2. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave ___ something occurred which attracted my attention.
A、unless
B、until
C、when
D、while
3. I've already told you that I'm going to buy it, ___________.
A、however much it costs
B、however does it cost much
C、how much does it cost
D、no matter how it costs
4. ____, he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
A、Although much he likes her
B、Much although he likes her
C、 As he likes her much
D、Much as he likes her
5.  ____ the calculation is right, scientists can never be sure that they have included all variables and modeled them accurately.
A、Even if
B、As far as
C、If only
D、So long as
6. ____ their differences, the couple were developing an obvious and genuine affection for each other.
A、But for
B、For all
C、Above all
D、Except for
7. I am sure he is up to the job ____ he would give his mind to it.
A、if only
B、in case
C、until
D、unless
8. We'll visit Europe next year _____ we have enough money.
A、lest
B、until
C、unless
D、provided
9. ____ he works hard, I don't mind when he finishes the experiment.
A、As soon as
B、As well as
C、As far as
D、So long as
10. I took no notice of him, ___ he flew into a rage.
A、for that
B、so that
C、in that
D、but that
11. I was advised to arrange for insurance ___ I needed medical treatment.
A、nevertheless
B、although
C、in case
D、so that
12. The man mad was put in the soft-padded cell lest he ___ himself.
A、injure
B、had injured
C、injured
D、would injure
13. You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting ______ you don’t mind taking the night train.
A、provided
B、unless
C、though
D、until
14. Excuse me. If your call’s not too urgent, do you mind __ mine first?
A、I make
B、if I make
C、me to make
D、that I make
15. ______ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.
A、For
B、Now
C、Since
D、Despite
16. These two areas are similar _______ they both have a high rainfall during this season.
A、to that
B、besides that
C、in that
D、except that
17. Although he knew little about the large amount of work done in the field, he succeeded ______ other more well-informed experimenters failed.
A、which
B、that
C、what
D、where
18. I have kept that portrait ______ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.
A、which
B、where
C、whether
D、when
19. Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patients do not take drugs _____ directed.
A、like
B、so
C、which
D、as
20. Melted iron is poured into the mixer much _____ tea is poured into a cup from a teapot.
A、in the same way like
B、in the same way which
C、in the same way
D、in the same way as