语态

英语中语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
语态的作用:语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语之间的关系。

语态的选用:如果主语是动作的执行者,谓语用主动语态。
例如:We clean the room every day.

如果主语是动作的承受者,或者说是动作的对象,谓语则是要用被动语态。
例如:The room is cleaned every day.

被动语态的各种形式
以ask 为例列表如下:


时态
方式
一般时态 进行时态
完成时态
现 在
Am
is    asked
are
am
is being asked
are
has / have
been asked
过去
was / were
asked
was / were
being asked
had been asked
将来
shall / will be asked   shall / will
have been asked
过去将来
should / would be asked   should / would have been asked

将来完成时和过去完成时的被动语态形式实际上很少使用。将来进行时态和完成进行时态都没有被动语态形式。
如果这些结构要变为被动语态,可以用完成时态或一般时态。
例 1.A)We have been discussing the problem for two days.
         B)The problem has been discussed for two days.
         我们讨论这个问题已经两天了。
例 2.A)We shall be discussing it tomorrow.
         B)It will be discussed tomorrow.

动词的语态一般不单独考,而是和时态、语气和非谓语动词一起考,需要注意以下考点。
考点一:不能用于被动语态的动词和词组
come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur, belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed
It took place before liberation.

考点二:下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 而且常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用。
lock ( 锁 ) ; wash ( 洗 ); sell ( 卖 ); read ( 读 ); wear ( 穿 ); blame (责备);ride (乘坐); write ( 写 );
Glass breaks easily. 玻璃容易破碎。
The car rides smoothly. 这车走起来很稳。
The case locks easily. 这箱子很好锁。
The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。

考点三:一些常用经典被动句型:It+be+过去分词+that从句,或主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.
It is said…, It is reported…, It is widely believed…, It is expected…, It is estimated…,
这些句子一般翻译为“据说……”,“人们认为……”,而 “以前人们认为……” 则应该说:It was believed…, It was thought…
【例如】
It is said that the boy has passed the national exam.
The boy is said to have passed the national exam.
It was reported that 60% students in the university had passed CET-6.
60% students in the university were reported to have passed CET-6.

考点四:特殊的被动结构
1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。
【例如】The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. This instrument must be handled with great care. In this sense, bad things can be turned into good things.
2)有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。
【例如】
The delegation was given a warm send-off at the airport. He was asked a number of questions at the press conference. Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparation.
3)当“动词+宾语+宾语补语”结构变为被动语态时,原句中的宾语补语成为主语补语。能用这种结构的动词有:declare, call, consider, elect, appoint, nominate, find, leave, like, make, prefer, think, want等。
【例如】
She was nominated a member of the council. Professor Smith was appointed the head of the Philosophy Department.
4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to.
【例如】
A stranger was seen to walks into the building. She was made to clean the floor.
5) 非谓语动词的被动语态(不定式、动名词和分词)
非谓语动词的各种形式也有被动语态,一般常用的是一般体和完成体的被动语态,如下表:

 

非谓语动词

被动语态形式

一般

不定式

to be done

动名词

being done

现在分词

being done

完成

不定式

to have been done

动名词

having been done

现在分词

having been done

例如:
It is a great honor for him to have been elected a model worker. (不定式完成体的被动语态)
This new teaching method has the advantage of shaving been tried a number of times by experienced teachers. (动名词完成体的被动语态)


Exercises:

1. The last half of the nineteenth century ____ the steady improvement in the means of travel.
A、has witnessed
B、was witnessed
C、witnessed
D、is witnessed
2. The grey building is where the workers live, and the white one is where the spare parts ____.
A、are producing
B、are produced
C、produced
D、being produced
3. This kind of glasses manufactured by experienced craftsmen ____ comfortably.
A、is worn
B、wears
C、wearing
D、are worn
4. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, ____ and perfected now.
A、developed
B、have developed
C、are being developed
D、will have been developed
5. As teachers we should concern ourselves with what is said, not what we think ____.
A、ought to be said
B、must say
C、have to be said
D、need to say
6. Once environment damage ____, it takes many years for the system to recover.
A、has done
B、is to do
C、does
D、is done
7. They would tell how the African ____on a ship to an American port.
A、was brought
B、could have been brought
C、had been brought
D、was to be brought
8. He does not possess a bicycle, this one he uses ____to Peter.
A、is belonged to
B、belonged
C、belongs
D、is belonging
9. The reason for all the changes being made ____to us yet.
A、has not explained
B、has not been explained
C、did not explained
D、were not explained
10. When he turned the corner, he found himself ____by a man in black.
A、tailed
B、been tailed
C、was tailed
D、had been tailed
11. A candidate for the democratic presidential nomination ____at this moment.
A、is interviewing
B、being interviewed
C、is being interviewed
D、interviewing
12. As we approached the work site, the workers were seen ____the new house.
A、building
B、build
C、built
D、to build
13. The composition ____any more.
A、need not to be corrected
B、doesn't need to be corrected
C、doesn't need be corrected
D、need not correct
14. The bank is reported in the local newspaper ____in broad daylight yesterday.
A、to be robbed
B、to have keen robbed
C、robbed
D、having been robbed
15. Hurry up, or the tickets ___out by the time we get there.
A、will have sold
B、will sell
C、have sold
D、will have been sold
16. She will stop showing off if no notice____ of her.
A、is taken
B、takes
C、will be taken
D、has taken
17. The goods ____when we arrived at the airport.
A、were just unloading
B、were just been unloading
C、had just unloaded
D、were just being unloaded
18. The young teacher has ____ competent.
A、been proved to be
B、proved to be
C、been proved
D、proved being
19. I don't remember ____the chance to try this method.
A、having been given
B、to have been given
C、having given
D、to have given
20. We could ask someone to do the work privately without it____.
A、know
B、be known
C、being known
D、to be known